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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325712 matches for " Chandrakant S.; Arora "
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Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt
Pandav,Chandrakant S.; Arora,Narendra K.; Krishnan,Anand; Sankar,Rajan; Pandav,Smita; Karmarkar,Madhu G.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000800007
Abstract: iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. for the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. the newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in india, madhya pradesh and the national capital territory of delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. salt samples from delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the expanded programme on immunization (epi) cluster sampling technique. a single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. salt samples from madhya pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the epi cluster sampling technique. in each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. the 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. all the samples were brought to the central laboratory in delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. the agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers (??real-life situations??), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt. th
How endemic countries can accelerate lymphatic filariasis elimination? An analytical review identify strategic and programmatic interventions
Chandrakant Lahariya & Shailendra S. Tomar
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2011,
Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 81 countries in the world, and a number of these countries have targetedfor LF elimination. This review of literature and analysis was conducted to identify additional and sustainablestrategies to accelerate LF elimination from endemic countries. This review noted that adverse events due tomass drug administration (MDA) of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablets, poor knowledge and information aboutLF amongst health workers & community members, and limited focus on information, education & communication(IEC) activities and interpersonal communication are the major barriers in LF elimination. The new approachesto increase compliance with DEC tablets (including exploring the possibility for DEC fortification of salt),targeted education programmes for physicians and health workers, and IEC material and inter personalcommunication to improve the knowledge of community are immediately required. There is a renewed andpressing need to conduct operational research, evolve sustainable and institutional mechanisms for education ofphysicians and health workers, ensure quality of trainings on MDA, strengthen IEC delivery mechanisms,implement internal and external monitoring of MDA activities, sufficient funding in timely manner, and toimprove political and programmatic leadership. It is also time that lessons from other elimination programmesare utilized to accelerate targeted LF elimination from the endemic countries.
Metronidazole causing fixed drug eruption
Arora S
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2002,
Abstract: A rare case of fixed drug eruption due to metronidazole is reported.
Role of Microbial Enzymes in the Bioremediation of Pollutants: A Review
Chandrakant S. Karigar,Shwetha S. Rao
Enzyme Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/805187
Abstract: A large number of enzymes from bacteria, fungi, and plants have been reported to be involved in the biodegradation of toxic organic pollutants. Bioremediation is a cost effective and nature friendly biotechnology that is powered by microbial enzymes. The research activity in this area would contribute towards developing advanced bioprocess technology to reduce the toxicity of the pollutants and also to obtain novel useful substances. The information on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes such as oxido-reductases and hydrolases have been extensively studied. This review attempts to provide descriptive information on the enzymes from various microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of wide range of pollutants, applications, and suggestions required to overcome the limitations of their efficient use. 1. Introduction The quality of life on the Earth is linked inextricably to the overall quality of the environment. Unfortunately the progress in science, technology, and industry a large amount ranging from raw sewage to nuclear waste is let out or dumped into the ecosystem thereby posing a serious problem for survival of mankind itself on earth. In the past, wastes were traditionally disposed by digging a hole and filling it with waste material. This mode of waste disposal was difficult to sustain owing to lack of new place every time to dump. New technologies for waste disposal that use high-temperature incineration and chemical decomposition (e.g., base-catalyzed dechlorination, UV oxidation) have evolved. Although they can be very effective at reducing wide a range of contaminants but at the same time have several drawbacks. These methods are complex, uneconomical, and lack public acceptance. The associated deficiencies in these methods have focused efforts towards harnessing modern-day bioremediation process as a suitable alternative. Bioremediation is a microorganism mediated transformation or degradation of contaminants into nonhazardous or less-hazardous substances. The employability of various organisms like bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants for efficient bioremediation of pollutants has been reported [1, 2]. The involvement of plants in the bioremediation of pollutants is called as phytoremediation. The process of phytoremediation is an emerging green technology that facilitates the removal or degradation of the toxic chemicals in soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and air (RTDF). Genetically, engineered plants are also in use. For instance arsenic is phytoremediated by genetically modified plants such as Arabidopsis
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: As discussed by Kanshi Ram, the untouchables were forced to sign the Poona Pact under the impact of the coercive fast of Gandhiji.Dr. Ambedkar denounced it the very next day expressing his views, “The Untouchables were sad. They had every reason to be”. He kept denouncing it till the end of his life in 1956
Emergence of chikungunya virus in Indian subcontinent after 32 years: a review
Chandrakant Lahariya , S.K. Pradhan
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2006,
Abstract: An outbreak of chikungunya virus is currently ongoing in many countries in Indian Ocean sinceJanuary 2005. The current outbreak appears to be the most severe and one of the biggest outbreakscaused by this virus. India, where this virus was last reported in 1973, is also amongst affectedcountries. Chikungunya virus has affected millions of the people in Africa and Southeast Asia, sinceit was first reported in 1952 in Tanzania. Even then, natural history of this disease is not fully understood.The intra-outbreak studies, point towards recent changes in the viral genome facilitatingthe rapid spread and enhanced pathogenecity. The available published scientific literature on chikungunyavirus was searched to understand the natural history of this disease, reasons for the currentoutbreak and the causes behind re-emergence of the virus in India.The paucity of the scientific information on various epidemiological aspects of chikungunya virusthreatens off an epidemic as control of spread of virus might be difficult in the absence of appropriateknowledge. There is an immediate need of the research on chikungunya virus, for an effectivevaccine besides strengthening the existing diagnostic laboratory facilities. The current outbreak canalso be taken as a lesson for establishment of a system for continuous surveillance of diseases, considereddisappeared from the countries. The re-emergence and epidemics are unpredictable phenomenabut the impact of such events can be ameliorated by appropriate knowledge and by being in theright state of preparedness
Authors′ reply
Pandey Chandrakant,Priye S,Ambesh S,Singh S
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2006,
In vitro evaluation of peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of water extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del
R Singh, S Arora
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The present study was planned to confirm the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of water extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del. in lipid peroxidation assay and results were compared with standard antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene). The bark powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing polarity by maceration extraction method and then the water extract was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and water. The scavenging activity of extract was found to increased on fractionating the extract.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers
Wahajuddin, Arora S
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S30320
Abstract: perparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers Review (5967) Total Article Views Authors: Wahajuddin, Arora S Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 3445 - 3471 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S30320 Received: 29 January 2012 Accepted: 17 March 2012 Published: 06 July 2012 Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora2 1Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, India Abstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) or Fe3O4 (magnetite) particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to be resolved before they can be moved from bench top to bedside.
Maximum-Likelihood estimation of the 4-parameter generalized weilbull distribution
Arora Manmohan S.
Revista Colombiana de Estadística , 1992,
Abstract: Weibull distrlbution is being increasingly employed by researches in tectinology, medicine and other áreas. Its generatlons to four parameters have been proposed, independently, by Stacy (1962) and Cohén (1969) ln this paper, we obtain the maximum-Likelihood estimators of the parameters of generalized Weibull distrlbution (g.w.d). The variance-covariance matrix is derived. We also consider the special coses when the threshold parameter and/or a shape parameter are known.
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