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The principles of active anticorrosion protection
Vu?chan
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2004,
Abstract: The corrosion is problem which concerns the economics over the whole world The losses created by corrosion are immense. According to different sources the losses created directly by corrosion are in the interval 2 4 % of the gross domestic product of the developed countries and losses resulted from corrosion indirectly as the interruptions in the production, penalties for not meeting the contracts are even much higher. For this reason there is an interest to reduce the losses related to corrosion.In gas industry is the problem of corrosion multiplied by the working conditions of metal material - the aggressive surrounding environment of soil. For this it is necessary to use the most effective protection techniques and technologies. Besides the classical anticorrosion methods of metals as painting with the corrosion resistant paint the active anticorrosion protection is used today.
The polarising processes by cathodic protection and their effects
Vu?chan
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2004,
Abstract: For the determination of appropriate protection against the corrosion of metal materials it is necessary to understand in details the principle of the corrosion. The corrosion is the oxidation of metal material which results in the change of its chemical composition. This chemical change is greatly influenced by the electrical current flowing in metal depending on electrical current flowing direction and intensity.
Propuesta de un modelo bidimensional de análisis de contenido de los sistemas webs de las administraciones locales espa olas
Chaín Navarro, Celia
Revista Espa?ola de Documentación Científica , 2005,
Abstract: We present two models connected with the cybergovernment for the Spanish Local Administrations: evolution steps for the electronic government. Content analysis model for webs based upon previous proposals. For the evolution model we propose five steps: a) basic information; b) one directional communication; c) bidirectional communication; d) economical transactions and e) data interchange between local and other Administrations. The analysis model contains more than 200 items for evaluation divided in three packages that we call: information for daily life; open administration and citizen participation. All are included in a matrix which provides values for every one of them at every one of the steps defined by the e-government. Presenta dos propuestas relacionadas con el cibergobierno en las Administraciones Locales: fases de evolución del gobierno electrónico (e-gobierno) y modelo de análisis de contenidos de los espacios web espa oles que integra versiones o propuestas previas. Propone cinco etapas de evolución: a) información; b)comunicación unidireccional; c) comunicación bidireccional; d) transacciones y e) interacción de datos, información y conocimiento interadministraciones. El modelo de análisis contiene más de 200 items a evaluar divididos en tres grandes bloques: información para la vida cotidiana; administración a distancia; y participación ciudadana, contenidos en una tabla multientrada que permite valorar cada uno de ellos en los cinco momentos definidos para el e-gobierno.
Spectroscopy and Time Variability of Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Vela Supernova Remnant
Alexandra N. Cha,Kenneth R. Sembach
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/313306
Abstract: We present high resolution (R~75,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~100) Ca II $\lambda$3933.663 and Na I $\lambda\lambda$5889.951, 5895.924 spectra of 68 stars in the direction of the Vela supernova remnant. The spectra comprise the most complete high resolution, high S/N, optical survey of early type stars in this region of the sky. A subset of the sight lines has been observed at multiple epochs, 1993/1994 and 1996. Of the thirteen stars observed twice, seven have spectra revealing changes in the equivalent width and/or velocity structure of lines, most of which arise from remnant gas. Such time variability has been reported previously for the sight lines towards HD 72089 and HD 72997 by Danks & Sembach (1995) and for HD 72127 by Hobbs et al. (1991). We have confirmed the ongoing time variability of these spectra and present new evidence of variability in the spectra of HD 73658, HD 74455, HD 75309 and HD 75821. We have tabulated Na I and Ca II absorption line information for the sight lines in our sample to serve as a benchmark for further investigations of the dynamics and evolution of the Vela SNR.
Valoración del contenido de hierro y sodio, del estado microbiológico y aceptabilidad de la carne vacuna kosher, en la ciudad de Rosario, 2009
Chaín,P; Forconesi,V; Leguizamón,M; Weinstein,N;
Diaeta , 2010,
Abstract: for meat to be called kosher, it must be submitted to a ritual method where blood flows quickly. the aim of this research was to evaluate the iron (fe++) and sodium (na+) content in said meat, as well as the ph and the presence of salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes in order to compare these values with set standards; and also to evaluate the acceptability of this meat. an analytic descriptive quantitative study was conducted to perform the chemical and microbiological analyses. three samples of kosher round of beef cut were taken. the determination of fe++, na+ and ph content was carried out according to the association of analytical communities (aoac) off standards, method 990.08, 966.16 and 981.12 respectively. the microbiological salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes assessments were made according to the fda's bacteriological analytical manual (bam) 8. fe++ and na+ results were compared with the table of food chemical composition from the center of experimental and applied endocrinology (cenexa, 1995). microbiological results were compared with parameters set by the argentine alimentary code (caa), the food and agricultural organization (fao) and the world health organization (who), and ph results were compared with values where there can be microorganism growth. additionally, a cross-sectional quantitative descriptive study was carried out for the sensory assessment, with the participation of students from the 3rd year of the nutrition career of the chemistry school of the university of latin american education centre (ucel). average values found were 1.85 mg/100 g for fe++ and 266 mg/100 g for na+, with a removal of 6% and an increment of 3.4 times respectively. salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes were absent in 25g of the meat cut studied. the ph average was 4.25 at 25o c. in the sensory assessment, the positive appreciation prevailed in the hedonic scale, showing a better acceptability in samples without salt.
Valoración del contenido de hierro y sodio, del estado microbiológico y aceptabilidad de la carne vacuna kosher, en la ciudad de Rosario, 2009 Valuation of the content of iron and sodium, microbiological state and preference of kosher meat kosher, in rosario city, 2009
P Chaín,V Forconesi,M Leguizamón,N Weinstein
Diaeta , 2010,
Abstract: La carne vacuna para ser denominada kosher, es sometida a un método ritual donde la sangre se derrama rápidamente. El presente estudio fue realizado con el objetivo de evaluar el contenido de hierro (Fe++) y sodio (Na+); Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria Monocytogenes y el pH para cotejarlos con estándares establecidos; y asimismo evaluar la aceptabilidad de dicha carne. Para el análisis de Fe++ y Na+; Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria Monocytogenes y pH se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo cuantitativo descriptivo analítico. Se tomaron tres muestras del corte tapa de asado Kosher. La determinación del contenido de Fe++, Na+ y pH se realizó según Normas Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) OFF. METHOD 990.08, 966.16 y 981.12 respectivamente. La valoración microbiológica de: Salmonella Typhimurium y Listeria Monocytogenes se efectuó según Food and Drug Administration- Bacteriological Analitiycal Manual (FDA B.A.M) 8th. Luego los resultados de Fe++ y Na+ se compararon con lo establecido según la tabla de Composición Química de Alimentos del Centro de Endocrinología Experimental y Aplicada (CENEXA),1995. Los resultados microbiológicos se compararon con parámetros establecidos por el Código Alimentario Argentino (CAA) y Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación/ Organización Mundial de la Salud (FAO/OMS) y Los resultados de pH se cotejaron con los valores en los cuales puede existir crecimiento de microorganismo (pH=6,5). Además, se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo cuantitativo participativo transversal para la realización de la evaluación sensorial. En la misma participaron alumnos de 3er a o de la Licenciatura en Nutrición de la Facultad de Química de Universidad del Centro Educativo Latinoamericano (UCEL). El valor promedio hallado para el Fe++ fue de 1,85 miligramos: mg/100 g, para el Na+ de 266 mg/100 g, produciéndose una remoción del 6 % y un incremento de 3,4 veces respectivamente. Salmonella Typhimurium y Listeria Monocytogenes se encontraron ausentes en 25 g del corte de carne estudiado. Y el pH promedio fue de 4,25 a 25o C. En la evaluación sensorial, predominó la apreciación "me gusta" de la escala hedónica, mostrando una mayor aceptabilidad en las muestras degustadas sin sal. For meat to be called kosher, it must be submitted to a ritual method where blood flows quickly. The aim of this research was to evaluate the iron (Fe++) and sodium (Na+) content in said meat, as well as the pH and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria Monocytogenes in order to compare these values with set standards; and also
Integration of Building Maintenance Data in Application of Building Information Modeling (BIM)  [PDF]
Dooyong Ahn, Heesung Cha
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2014.22015
Abstract: A typical building project has a long life in the maintenance stage. Also, the cost at this stage is enormously huge compared to planning, design and construction phases. In the earlier stage, which is planning or design phase, however, many project participants put little emphasis on the maintenance information. As a result, important maintenance data is missing and erroneously feedback to the 3D/BIM model. This research provides a generic process model for maintenance information management for building facilities. The authors have identified that there exist most-frequently used information areas: checking information, material information, equipment information, supplier information, and maintenance history information. Each information area should be embedded in the BIM model in order to effectively feedback to the operation and maintenance stage in the project. Thus, the study has proposed a novel data format structure which can effectively link the 3D/BIM object with the maintenance data. The demonstration project shows how the data format structure is used. The contribution of this study is to provide guidance to a project practitioner by step-by-step approach in dealing with the significant maintenance information in the earlier stage of the construction project.
Establishment of New Solution for Complex Systems in Multidisciplinary Sci-ence Based on Feedback System Analysis Method and Proven by Simulator  [PDF]
Deok-Soo Cha
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613198
Abstract: This paper establishes a very important scientific solution to science of complexity for physicists, and presents a multidisciplinary involved physics and engineering. The innovative solution for complex systems presented here is verified on the basis of principles in engineering such as feed-back-system analysis using the classical control theory. This paper proposes that a complex system is a closed-loop system with a negative feedback element and is a solvable problem. A complex system can be analyzed using the system analysis theory in control engineering, and its behavior can be realized using a specially designed simulator.
Los usuarios y las webs de los archivos históricos nacionales: el caso del Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (Portugal)
Más Bleda, Amalia;Chaín Navarro, Celia;
Investigación bibliotecológica , 2009,
Abstract: information is given of services that should be included in the website of an archive, taking as reference the opinion of its public. therefore the needs of 90 users of this concrete archive, the arquivo nacional da torre do tombo (national archive of portugal) are analyzed, which were obtained through a personal interview. conclusions are that most users wish to find basic or practical information in the web, such as contact, access and consultation data; a detailed description of the archive's funds; the number of digitalized documents on-line; a good search system (catalog), and the possibility of doing transactions on-line.
Avaluació dels instruments de consulta en línia inclosos en els webs dels arxius nacionals hispanoamericans
Más Bleda, Amalia,Chaín Navarro, Celia
BiD : Textos Universitaris de Biblioteconomia i Documentació , 2009, DOI: 10.1344/105.000001484
Abstract: Objectiu. Analitzar els instruments de consulta en línia inclosos en els webs dels arxius nacionals hispanoamericans. -- Metodologia. Elaborar una llista del conjunt d'elements, de característiques o de serveis bàsics que han d'oferir els instruments de consulta en línia dels arxius, i comprovar si els webs dels arxius nacionals hispanoamericans els tenen. -- Resultats. Dels divuit arxius amb web, només vuit (44,4 %) proporcionen aquest instrument, un dels quals (el cubà) no funciona. Els més complets són els inclosos en els webs dels arxius de Xile, de Mèxic i de la República Dominicana. Són els únics que recullen tots els fons conservats en la institució (la resta es refereixen a una temàtica concreta), encara que només el mexicà i el dominicà (junt amb el colombià) descriuen els documents segons les normes ISAD(G) i proporcionen documents digitalitzats.Aim. To analyse the online consultation tools available on the web sites of the Hispano-American national archives. -- Methodology. To produce a list of the main elements, features and services that archive online consultation tools should offer, and check whether the web sites of the Hispano-American national archives include them. -- Results. Of the 18 archives with a web site, only eight (44.4%) provide this tool. One of them, the Cuban archive, is not currently in operation. The archives in Chile, Mexico and the Dominican Republic have the best online consultation tools. These are the only ones to include all the institution s holdings; the rest deal with a specific topic. Only the Mexican, Dominican, and Colombian tools describe documents according to the ISAD(G) rules and provide digitized documents.
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