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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 199377 matches for " Cesar G; Barros "
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Maternal-child health in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: major conclusions from comparisons of the 1982, 1993, and 2004 birth cohorts
Barros, Fernando C.;Victora, Cesar G.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001500012
Abstract: important changes were observed in maternal characteristics, health care indicators, and child health during the 22 years covered by the three population-based birth cohort studies conducted in the city of pelotas, southern brazil. maternal education levels improved, cigarette smoking during pregnancy was reduced, and birth intervals became longer. also, there were more single mothers, and maternal obesity increased. coverage of antenatal and delivery care by professionals improved, but inductions and caesarean sections increased markedly, the latter accounting for 45% of deliveries in 2004. with regard to child health, the reductions in neonatal and infant mortality rates were modest, and the significant increase in preterm births - 14.7% of all births in 2004 - appears to have colluded with this stagnation. other infant health indicators, such as immunization coverage and breastfeeding duration, showed improvements over the period. regarding infant nutrition, malnourishment at age 12 months decreased, but the prevalence of overweight was higher in 2004. the existence of three population-based birth cohorts using comparable methodology allowed for the study of important secular trends in maternal and child health.
Global child survival initiatives and their relevance to the Latin American and Caribbean Region
Victora,Cesar G.; Barros,Fernando C.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892005000800007
Abstract: we review two series of papers published by the lancet: the child survival series (2003) and the neonatal survival series (2005). both series drew attention to the nearly 11 million annual deaths of children under the age of five years, and to the fact that almost 4 million of these deaths occur in the first month of life. we show that two thirds of these deaths could be prevented through universal coverage with existing, low-cost interventions that are failing to reach most children in the world. the series also highlighted the importance of reducing inequities both between and within countries. the relevance of these series to latin america and the caribbean is examined. although substantial progress has been made in reducing mortality and improving coverage, two major challenges remain: how to improve the quality of health interventions, and how to reach the most disadvantaged children in the latin american and caribbean region.
Barros Fernando C.,Victora Cesar G.
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1996,
Situa??o sócio-econ?mica e condi??es de vida: compara??o de duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil
Tomasi, Elaine;Barros, Fernando C.;Victora, Cesar G.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1996000500003
Abstract: socioeconomic and family characteristics of two cohorts of babies born in 1982 and 1993 in pelotas (southern brazil) were compared. there were 6,011 births in 1982 and 5,304 in 1993. in relation to family income, there were fewer poor babies in 1993; 60.8 % of the families earned less than 3 times the monthly minimum wage in 1993, as compared to 69.5% in 1982. sanitary conditions also improved over the decade, and the proportion of families with running water and flush toilets increased by 10%. on the other hand, there were no changes in the proportion of single-parent families or availability of home appliances like radios, stoves, and refrigerators. the mean number of persons per household increased from 3.0 in 1982 to 3.2 in 1993. in general, comparison of the two birth cohorts in this city suggests an improvement in quality of living over the time period for families with newborns. this finding should be taken into account when studying the evolution of health indicators over the course of the decade.
As m?es e suas gesta??es: compara??o de duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil
Tomasi, Elaine;Barros, Fernando C.;Victora, Cesar G.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1996000500004
Abstract: the study of two birth cohorts in pelotas (southern brazil) in the years 1982 and 1993 allowed for a comparison of maternal characteristics, including biological, socioeconomic, demographic, and reproductive variables. all women living in urban pelotas and giving birth in the city maternity hospitals were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. there were 6,011 births in 1982 and 5,304 in 1993. women in the 1993 cohort were of a higher socioeconomic status (as measured by familiy income and years of schooling). they were also significantly taller and heavier than mothers giving birth in 1982. mean parity did not differ for the two groups, but in 1993 there were fewer primiparae and more women with four or more children. the birth interval was also significantly greater in 1993; one possible reason (in addition to more frequent use of contraceptives) was an increase in the number of previous abortions observed in 1993 as compared to 1982.
Aten??o pré-natal em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993
Halpern, Ricardo;Barros, Fernando C.;Victora, Cesar G.;Tomasi, Elaine;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1998000300004
Abstract: all 5304 births in the hospitals of pelotas, rio grande do sul, brazil in 1993 were studied. neonates were examined and their mothers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic conditions, family income, reproductive health, and medical care during pregnancy. ninety-five per cent of women received prenatal care. the mean number of physician visits during pregnancy was 7 and the majority of the women (84.7%) began visits before the fifth month of pregnancy. women who did not receive prenatal care were from the lowest socioeconomic stratum and were mostly adolescents or over 40 years of age. incidence of low birth weight in this group was 2.5 times that of the group with more than five visits (p>0.001). perinatal mortality rate was 50.6/1000 in the group without prenatal care and 15.8/1000 in the group with more than five visits. with regard to utilization of health care, the study shows that twenty-five per cent of women with high gestational risk received inadequate prenatal care. the rate was less than 10% in the group of women with low gestational risk. these results suggest the need for improvement in the quality of prenatal care with special attention for mothers with high gestational risk.
Indicador econ?mico para o Brasil baseado no censo demográfico de 2000
Barros,Aluísio J D; Victora,Cesar G;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102005000400002
Abstract: objective: to propose an asset based indicator of wealth for brazil using variables present in the demographic census. methods: the indicator, named ien (indicador econ?mico nacional/ national wealth score), was developed using 12 assets and the schooling of the household head, through principal component analysis. data from the 2000 brazilian demographic sample was used for deriving the score and for the calculation of decile cut-off points. results: the indicator, first component obtained from the analysis with the 13 variables, retained 38% of the total variability, and presented a spearman correlation of 0,74 with total family income and of 0,67with per capita income. the necessary scores to calculate the indicator are presented, as well as reference distributions for the 27 states and their capitals, the five major regions as for the whole country. an example of use of indicator is presented. conclusions: differently from other economic indicators, the indicador econ?mico nacional has local reference distributions available, along with the national distribution. it is therefore possible to compare a study sample to the municipal, state or country distribution. the small number of variables allow investigators to calculate the indicador econ?mico nacional in research studies where economic classification is of interest.
Baixa prevalência de déficit de peso para estatura: compara??o de crian?as brasileiras com e sem déficit estatural
Post,Cora LA; Victora,Cesar G; Barros,Aluísio JD;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101999000600009
Abstract: objectives: the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal circumference and weight-for-height in children. the average of 18 anthropometric and body proportionality indexes were compared among four groups of children: stunted and non-stunted brazilians, peruvians and north-americans. methods: there were studied 386 children aged 6-59 months living in a poor neighborhood in pelotas, brazil. anthropometric measurements (weight, recumbent length or height, sitting height or crown-rump length; head, chest, upper arm and abdominal circumferences; triceps, biceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfold tickness; biacromial and biiliac breadths) were obtained. muscle, fat, total upper arm areas, leg length and body proportionality indexes were calculated. results and conclusions: the study sample showed high levels of morbidity, low parental educational levels, poor access to health services and poor housing conditions. stunted brazilian children had lower means for most of the anthropometric measurements when compared to non-stunted brazilians and north-american children. however, stunted children showed larger abdominal, head and thoracic circumference in relation to their stature than non-stunted children. the low prevalence of weight-for-height among the children of this study is not a result of excess of fat or muscle tissue, and may be partly explained by an increase in head and trunk dimensions (including abdominal circumference) relative to the child's stature.
Nutri??o materna e dura??o da amamenta??o em uma coorte de nascimento de Pelotas, RS
Gigante,Denise Petrucci; Victora,Cesar G; Barros,Fernando C;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000300008
Abstract: objective: the effects of maternal nutritional status on the duration of breastfeeding are inconsistent in the literature. a population-based cohort study was set to investigate this relationship. methods: nine hundred and seventy seven mothers giving birth in 1993 (20% of that year's births) were studied. studied maternal characteristics included nutritional status, social, economic, and demographic variables. the effects of these variables on the prevalence of breastfeeding at six months were analyzed through logistic regression. cox regression was applied to analyze the effects on the duration of breastfeeding. results: mulltivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher prevalence of breastfeeding among women with a pre-pregnancy weight of 49 kg or more (odds ratio = 1.31; ci95% 1.04 ? 1.64). the association with maternal height was not significant (p=0.06). cox regression also showed a non-significant protective effect of having a higher pre-pregnancy weight (hazard ratio = 0.91; ci95% 0.82 ? 1.01). the duration of breastfeeding duration was not associated with maternal height. weight gain during pregnancy was not associated with breastfeeding in either analyses. other variables associated with the duration of breastfeeding in both analyses were maternal age, parity, smoking, and gestational age. family income was associated with the prevalence of breastfeeding at six months, and birthweight was associated with the duration of breastfeeding. conclusions: pre-pregnancy nutritional status is a stronger predictor of breastfeeding than weight gain during pregnancy.
Determinantes do hábito de fumar e de seu abandono durante a gesta??o em localidade urbana na regi?o sul do Brasil
Halal,Iná S.; Victora,Cesar G.; Barros,Fernando C.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101993000200005
Abstract: a cross-sectional study of 873 pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic was undertaken in pelotas (southern brazil), over a one-year period (1989-90) for the purpose of identifying possible risk and prognostic factors for smoking during pregnancy. the prevalence of smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was 40.8%. the smoking habits of the woman's mother and partner, as well as her educational level, were associated with smoking at the beginning of pregnancy. smoking in the partner was associated with an approximately two-fold increase in the risk of smoking. the smoking interruption rate, until the 15th-22nd gestational week, was of 35.6%. family income, smoking habits of woman's mother and partner, age at starting, duration and intensity of the woman's habit were all associated with the interruption during pregnancy. the above results were not affected by adjustment for confounding variables made through stratified analysis.
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