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Hip Structural Changes and Fracture Risk in Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
Meltem Esenyel,Aynur Ozen,Cem Zeki Esenyel,Aylin Rezvani
Eurasian Journal of Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Although bone mineral density (BMD) is an important predictor of hip fracture, there is a large overlap of BMD values between those who fracture their hips and those who do not. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the structural parameters of the hip in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis in the hip region and to assess their relationship with osteoporotic fracture risk, age and gender.Materials and Methods: In this observational retrospective study, 150 patients with osteopenia (100 postmenopausal women and 50 men ≥ 50 years of age) and 125 patients with osteoporosis in the hip (100 postmenopaussal women and 25 men ≥ 50 years of age) were included. In addition to densitometry measurements by DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorbimetry), structural variables were determined using the Hip Strength Analysis program (HSA). Results: In logistic regression analyses, the femoral neck BMD (odds ratio (OR), 2.6; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8-3.8), age (OR per 10 years 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), femoral neck shaft angle (NSA) (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1), Femur Strength Index (FSI) (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.2), and Cross sectional area (CSA) (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) were all associated with osteoporotic fractures in women and men. Osteopenic patients had smaller femoral neck-shaft angles (NSA) compared to osteoporotic patients (p<0.05). This angle was larger in women (p<0.05); and women had decreased (FSI) (p<0.001) and CSA (p<0.05), which cause increased fracture risk. Conclusion: Spatial distribution of bone tissue is a useful determinant of fracture risk.
Relationship between Meniscal Tears and Tibial Slope on the Tibial Plateau
Tugrul Alici,Cem Zeki Esenyel,Meltem Esenyel,Yunus Imren
Eurasian Journal of Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: The geometry of the tibial plateau has a direct influence on the translation and the screw home biomechanics of the tibiofemoral joint. Little information on the relationship between the tibial slope and meniscal lesions is available. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the effect of the tibial slope on the medial and lateral meniscus lesions in patients with intact ACLs. Materials and Methods: The MRIs and lat roentgenograms of 212 patients with meniscus lesions were examined to determine the possible effect of the tibial slope on meniscal tears. First, the anatomic axis of the proximal tibia was established. Then, the angle between the line drawn to show the tibial slopes (medial and lateral) and the line drawn perpendicular to the proximal tibial anatomic axis was established on MRI. The patients with previously detected meniscus lesions were classified into three categories: patients with only medial meniscal tear (Group 1, 90 patients); patients with only lateral meniscal tear (Group 2, 15 patients); and patients with both medial and lateral meniscal tear (Group 3, 19 patients). Group 4 had no meniscal tear (88 patients). The MRIs of the patients who had applied to the Orthopedic Outpatient Clinic with patellofemoral pain and no meniscal tear were included as the control group. Results: The average tibial slope of the medial tibial plateau was 3.18° in group 1, 3.64° in group 2, 3° in group 3, and 3.27° in group 4. The average tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau was 2.88° in group 1, 3.6° in group 2, 2.68 in group 3, and 2.91 in group 4. The tibial slope on the medial tibial plateau was significantly larger than the lateral tibial plateaus in group 1 and group 4 (p<0.05). In group 2, there was no statistically significant difference between the tibial slopes of the two sides (p>0.05). In addition, the tibial slope on the lateral side of group 2 was significantly larger than that of groups 1, 3, and 4 (p<0.05).Conclusion: An increase in the tibial slopes, especially on the lateral tibial plateau, seems to increase the risk of meniscal tear.
Effect of Vascular Occlusion on Amputation Level in Diabetic Foot
Murat BüLBüL,Semih AYANO?LU,Cem Zeki ESENYEL,Cem Din?ay BüYüKKURT
Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of vascular occlusion on debridement and/or amputation levels in diabetic foot patients with regulated blood glucose levels and without deep tissue infection. Patients and Methods: The study included 31 patients (19 males, 12 females; mean age 65 years; range 52 to 81 years) followed up between 2002 and 2005. Mean follow-up was 25 months (18-59). Mean hospitalization time was 22 days (3-77). Thirty patients were discharged in good condition and one patient died. Results: All included cases had regulated blood glucose levels. A. dorsalis pedis and a. tibialis posterior were found totally occluded on Doppler ultrasonography. Despite occlusion, amputation levels were adjacent to necrotic areas. Eighteen patients had metatarsophalengeal joint disarticulation, 11 had transmetatarsal amputation, two had Syme amputation. Twenty-four patients (77%) were discharged without complications. During follow-up, six patients (19%) had new necrotic areas postoperatively, and underwent below-knee amputation. One case (4%) who had Syme amputation died after operation due to cardiac problems. Conclusion: We observed that instead of high levels of amputations which vascular surgeons suggest in diabetic food patients with vascular occlusion, tissue protective surgery is more appropriate.
How Reliable is the Safe Zone of Hardinge Approach for Superior Gluteal Nerve?
Murat BüLBüL,Semih AYANO?LU,Kahraman ?ZTüRK,Cem ESENYEL
Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Objectives: Anterolateral Hardinge approach is one of the most common approaches used for total hip arthroplasty. Superior gluteal nerve is the main motor nerve of abductor mechanism of gluteus medius and tensor fascia lata muscles, where the injury to this nerve manifests itself as Trendelenburg's sign. In order to prevent the occurrence of this sign, a concept was developed called as “safe zone”, where no superior gluteal nerve exists. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of the concept of safe zone as previously described by many authors in Hardinge approach.Patients and Methods: Nineteen hips of 10 fresh cadavers were evaluated in this study. We measured the distance between 1/3 anterior of greater trochanter of femur and superior gluteal nerve.Results: We detected the distance between 1/3 anterior of greater trochanter of femur and superior gluteal nerve to be 4.4 cm. The mean value of distance we observed in our study was smaller than that reported in literature by various authors.Conclusion: We have detected that in cases where total hip arthroplasty will be performed through Hardinge incision, the area defined as safe zone was shorter than that described by various authors as 5 cm. We concluded that safe zone concept of 5 cm should not be relied on in cases where Hardinge approach is used.
Composition of Bogma Raki, Turkish Traditional Alcoholic Beverage
Cem Zeren,Zeki Aydin,Zafer Yonden,Serbay Bucak
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2012.87.91
Abstract: Illegal alcohol consumption is one of the important public health problem in Turkey/Hatay, same as in the world. Researchers investigated the compositions of The Turkish traditional homemade raki is called Bogma raki which produced from grapes, figs or plums by GC/MS System. Commercial products and Bogma raki samples were analyzed for the amounts of ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol). The highest alcoholic strengths were ranged from 21-71% vol. in the illegal alcohols while the commercial alcohols had a very uniform alcoholic strength around 41.5% vol. Additionally most of the samples contained detectable amounts of trans-anethole, isoamyl alcohol, butanol and 1-propanol. Compared to commercial raki samples we have found substantial differences in the amounts of methanol, higher alcohols and toxic effects of homemade alcoholic beverages. Researchers conclude that this study is giving us significant data about the volatile components of illegal alcoholic beverage, Bogma raki in this region.
Prefixes of Degree in English: A Cognitive-Corpus Analysis  [PDF]
Zeki Hamawand
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2011.12003
Abstract: This paper provides a new analysis of prefixes of degree in English which include hyper-, mega-, super-, sur- and ultra-. In carrying out the analysis, it adopts two approaches. Theoretically, it adopts Cognitive Semantics (CS) and tries to substantiate some of its tenets with reference to prefixation. One tenet is that linguistic items are meaningful. On this basis, the paper argues that prefixes of degree have a wide range of meanings that gather around a central sense. Another tenet is that the meaning of a linguistic item is best understood in terms of the domain to which it belongs. On this basis, the paper argues that prefixes of degree form a set in which they highlight not only similarities but also differences. A further tenet is that the use of an expression is governed by the particular construal imposed on its content. On this basis, the paper argues that a derived word results from the particular construal the speaker chooses to describe a situation. Empirically, the paper adopts Corpus Linguistics, which helps identify the distinctive collocates associated with the members of a pair and, consequently, reveal the subtle differences in meaning between them. The aim is to show that the members of a pair are not synonymous, as has hitherto been claimed by previous paradigms or current dictionaries, but distinctive in use.
Control of the menstrual cycle: the impact of nutrition on reproductive function
Turk Pediatri Ar?ivi , 2011,
Abstract: The menstrual cycle is a complex series of events, especially prone to outside factors during the adolescent period due to the incomplete maturation of hypothalamo-hypophysio-ovarian axis. Both over- and undernutrition may adversely affect the menstrual cycle. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and the female athlete triad are the main causes of undernutrition. Menstrual cycle abnormalities and ovulatory problems are common. Overnutrition presents with obesity, becoming more and more prevalent throughout the world, and oligo or anovulation. Present knowledge suggests that energy balance and the amount of readily available energy are more important than “critical weight” in determining anovulation and menstrual cessation. Treatment of these adolescents by a multidiciplinary team increases their reproductive capacity and normolizes their menstrual cycle. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 107-10)
De-Dollarization and European Energy Policy: Testing Brent and WTI  [PDF]
Berk Cem
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38008
Abstract: Historically most of the oil trade has been made with US Dollars. This has important practical implications. For example, US Dollar is always a reserve currency since it has to be obtained to trade oil. There were previous attempts to trade in Euros such as Iraq however recently there is more support from resource countries such as Russia, China and Iran. A dedollarization campaign against petrodollar has already been started. This can be done by exporting oil, gas and gold with currencies other than US Dollar, such as Ruble, Yuan or Rial or most importantly an international reserve currency which could be Euros as a strong alternative to US Dollar. This is possible due to monetary policy practice of European Central Bank and support from European Union. This increases the value of Euro, decreases interest rates and helps European economy with increased interest on European assets. This paper investigates Brent and WTI for the changes in the value of major currencies. Brent is traditionally a European oil index, and oil is produced in North Sea whereas, WTI (West Texas Intermediate) is a Texas based US oil index. Both indices are used as international benchmarks of oil. The data for this research is daily between February 2011 and September 2014. The WTI and Brent are represented by variables from NYSE exchange traded funds namely Teucrium WTI Crude Oil ETF (WTI), and United States Brent Oil ETF(BRENT). The currencies analyzed for the study are EUR/USD, USD/CHF, USD/JPY, USD/RUB, USD/SAR and USD/ ZAR. The analysis includes unit root tests, vector autoregression (VAR), vector error correction model (VECM), cointegration and Granger Causality. Finally European Energy Policy implications, and opportunities and challenges of oil trade in Euros are discussed.
One Belt One Road Initiative: New Route on China’s Change of Course to Growth  [PDF]
Cem Nalbantoglu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.51007
Abstract: China’s One Belt One Road Initiative (OBOR) is an inclusive project that is pregnant to profound changes for International Political Economy but also for Chinese Political Economy. In 21st Century, when Chinese Political Economy is observed, it is to be seen that engines of the economy that once led China to development become the very problems that are distorting the development and growth today. Those problems make the “challenges of China” and they are deeply connected to each other making local operations ineffective in long term solutions. Hence, China is in need of a restructuring in social and economic architecture of the country that will not only enable a grand solution to those challenges but that will also guarantee the stability in domestic affairs. By employing One Belt One Road Initiative, China aims to achieve peace and harmony in her domestic structures regarding economy and society. Therefore, China’s domestic challenges render One Belt One Road Initiative essential for the survival of a stable China.
Managing Real Estate Exposure: An Empirical Analysis on Interest Rate Risk  [PDF]
Cem Berk
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2017.63019
Abstract: Real estate is an illiquid investment with cyclical returns, so risk management techniques should be used for sustainable returns. The risk management techniques include asset based, portfolio, insurance and derivatives solutions. Asset based solutions include the risk character of the real estate, based on where it’s located and how well it is developed. Some property such as foreclosure and those require maintenance is riskier than others. Portfolio solutions allow real estate companies to include real estate with different location and segments such as office and retail. Using this, the risk is limited to the systematic component, where asset based-idiosyncratic risk is tried to be reduced when included enough number of assets to the basket. The management should be capable of determining which risks taking and which to transfer. Some risks such as earthquake, fire, vehicle crush, terrorist activities are rare in nature but can cause severe damage when it takes place. The insurance policies can cover these events which most of the time are reinsured. In addition derivatives are available to hedge some of the risks. These can be traded on the market or over-the-counter. By using derivatives it is possible to hedge interest rate risk, inflation, currency risks, and property price changes. To hedge interest rate risk which is also studied in this paper, instruments such as cap, swap, and collar are available. The research is investigating the role of interest rate risk in the performance of real estate management companies. The variables used in this research are 30 years treasury yield, and exchange closing price for CBRE Group Inc., Colliers International Group, and Jones Lang LaSalle Incorporated. The data is daily for the period 16 June 2004 and 19 June 2015. The methods used are Johansen Cointegration and Granger Causality. The results of the study
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