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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 190484 matches for " Cedric G. Lacey "
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Numerical overcooling in shocks
Peter Creasey,Tom Theuns,Richard G. Bower,Cedric G. Lacey
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19001.x
Abstract: We present a study of cooling in radiative shocks simulated with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and adaptive mesh refinement codes. We obtain a similarity solution for a shock-tube problem in the presence of radiative cooling, and test how well the solution is reproduced in Gadget and Flash. Shock broadening governed by the details of the numerical scheme (artificial viscosity or Riemann solvers) leads to potentially significant overcooling in both codes. We interpret our findings in terms of a resolution criterion, and apply it to realistic simulations of cosmological accretion shocks onto galaxy haloes, cold accretion and thermal feedback from supernovae or active galactic nuclei. To avoid numerical overcooling of accretion shocks onto haloes that should develop a hot corona requires a particle or cell mass resolution of 10^6 M_sun, which is within reach of current state-of-the-art simulations. At this mass resolution, thermal feedback in the interstellar medium of a galaxy requires temperatures of supernova or AGN driven bubbles to be in excess of 10^7 K at densities of n_H=1.0 cm^-3, in order to avoid spurious suppression of the feedback by numerical overcooling.
Constraining SN feedback: a tug of war between reionization and the Milky Way satellites
Jun Hou,Carlos. S. Frenk,Cedric G. Lacey,Sownak Bose
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Theoretical models of galaxy formation based on the cold dark matter cosmogony typically require strong feedback from supernova (SN) explosions in order to reproduce the Milky Way satellite galaxy luminosity function and the faint end of the field galaxy luminosity function. However, too strong a SN feedback also leads to the universe reionizing too late, and the metallicities of Milky Way satellites being too low. The combination of these four observations therefore places tight constraints on SN feedback. We investigate these constraints using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model GALFORM. We find that these observations favour a SN feedback model in which the feedback strength evolves with redshift. We also investigate the sources of the photons responsible for reionization, and find that, for our best fit model, half of the ionizing photons are emitted by galaxies with rest-frame far-UV absolute magnitudes $M_{\rm AB}(1500{\rm \AA})<-17.5$, which implies that already observed galaxy populations contribute about half of the photons responsible for reionization. The $z=0$ descendants of these galaxies are mainly galaxies with stellar mass $M_*>10^{10}\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$ and preferentially inhabit halos with mass $M_{\rm halo}>10^{13}\,{\rm M}_{\odot}$.
A dynamical model of supernova feedback: gas outflows from the interstellar medium
Claudia del P. Lagos,Cedric G. Lacey,Carlton M. Baugh
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1696
Abstract: We present a dynamical model of supernova feedback which follows the evolution of pressurised bubbles driven by supernovae in a multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM). The bubbles are followed until the point of break-out into the halo, starting from an initial adiabatic phase to a radiative phase. We show that a key property which sets the fate of bubbles in the ISM is the gas surface density, through the work done by the expansion of bubbles and its role in setting the gas scaleheight. The multi-phase description of the ISM is essential, and neglecting it leads to order of magnitude differences in the predicted outflow rates. We compare our predicted mass loading and outflow velocities to observations of local and high-redshift galaxies and find good agreement over a wide range of stellar masses and velocities. With the aim of analysing the dependence of the mass loading of the outflow, beta (i.e. the ratio between the outflow and star formation rates), on galaxy properties, we embed our model in the galaxy formation simulation, GALFORM, set in the LCDM framework. We find that a dependence of beta solely on the circular velocity, as is widely assumed in the literature, is actually a poor description of the outflow rate, as large variations with redshift and galaxy properties are obtained. Moreover, we find that below a circular velocity of 80km/s the mass loading saturates. A more fundamental relation is that between beta and the gas scaleheight of the disk, hg, and the gas fraction, fgas, as beta hg^(1.1) fgas^(0.4), or the gas surface density, \Sigma_g, and the gas fraction, as beta \Sigma_g^(-0.6) fgas^(0.8). We find that using the new mass loading model leads to a shallower faint-end slope in the predicted optical and near-IR galaxy luminosity functions.
Can galactic outflows explain the properties of Ly-alpha emitters?
Alvaro Orsi,Cedric G. Lacey,Carlton M. Baugh
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21396.x
Abstract: We study the properties of Ly-alpha emitters in a cosmological framework by computing the escape of Ly-alpha photons through galactic outflows. We combine the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with a Monte Carlo Ly-alpha radiative transfer code. The properties of Ly-alpha emitters at 0
Simulations and modelling of the ISM in galaxies
Claudia del P. Lagos,Cedric G. Lacey,Carlton M. Baugh
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The latest observations of molecular gas and the atomic hydrogen content of local and high-redshift galaxies, coupled with how these correlate with star formation activity, have revolutionized our ideas about how to model star formation in a galactic context. A successful theory of galaxy formation has to explain some key facts: (i) high-redshift galaxies have higher molecular gas fractions and star formation rates than local galaxies, (ii) scaling relations show that the atomic-to-stellar mass ratio decreases with stellar mass in the local Universe, and (iii) the global abundance of atomic hydrogen evolves very weakly with time. We review how modern cosmological simulations of galaxy formation attempt to put these pieces together and highlight how approaches simultaneously solving dark matter and gas physics, and approaches first solving the dark matter N-body problem and then dealing with gas physics using semi-analytic models, differ and complement each other. We review the observable predictions, what we think we have learned so far and what still needs to be done in the simulations to allow robust testing by the new observations expected from telescopes such as ALMA, PdBI, LMT, JVLA, ASKAP, MeerKAT, SKA.
On the Origin of Intracluster Entropy
G. Mark Voit,Michael L. Balogh,Richard G. Bower,Cedric G. Lacey,Greg L. Bryan
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/376499
Abstract: The entropy distribution of the intracluster medium and the shape of its confining potential well completely determine the X-ray properties of a relaxed cluster of galaxies, motivating us to explore the origin of intracluster entropy and to describe how it develops in terms of some simple models. We present an analytical model for smooth accretion, including both preheating and radiative cooling, that links a cluster's entropy distribution to its mass accretion history and shows that smooth accretion overproduces the entropy observed in massive clusters by a factor ~2-3, depending on the mass accretion rate. Any inhomogeneity in the accreting gas reduces entropy production at the accretion shock; thus, smoothing of the gas accreting onto a cluster raises its entropy level. Because smooth accretion produces more entropy than hierarchical accretion, we suggest that some of the observed differences between clusters and groups may arise because preheating smooths the smaller-scale lumps of gas accreting onto groups more effectively than it smooths the larger-scale lumps accreting onto clusters. This effect may explain why entropy levels at the outskirts of groups are ~2-3 times larger than expected from self-similar scaling arguments. The details of how the density distribution of accreting gas affects the entropy distribution of a cluster are complex, and we suggest how to explore the relevant physics with numerical simulations.
On the impact of empirical and theoretical star formation laws on galaxy formation
Claudia del P. Lagos,Cedric G. Lacey,Carlton M. Baugh,Richard G. Bower,Andrew J. Benson
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19160.x
Abstract: We investigate the consequences of applying different star formation laws in the galaxy formation model GALFORM. Three broad star formation laws are implemented: the empirical relations of Kennicutt and Schmidt and Blitz & Rosolowsky and the theoretical model of Krumholz, McKee & Tumlinson. These laws have no free parameters once calibrated against observations of the star formation rate (SFR) and gas surface density in nearby galaxies. We start from published models, and investigate which observables are sensitive to a change in the star formation law, without altering any other model parameters. We show that changing the star formation law (i) does not significantly affect either the star formation history of the universe or the galaxy luminosity functions in the optical and near-IR, due to an effective balance between the quiescent and burst star formation modes; (ii) greatly affects the cold gas contents of galaxies; (iii) changes the location of galaxies in the SFR versus stellar mass plane, so that a second sequence of "passive" galaxies arises, in addition to the known "active" sequence. We show that this plane can be used to discriminate between the star formation laws.
Extending the halo mass resolution of $N$-body simulations
Raul E. Angulo,Carlton M. Baugh,Carlos S. Frenk,Cedric G. Lacey
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1084
Abstract: We present a scheme to extend the halo mass resolution of N-body simulations of the hierarchical clustering of dark matter. The method uses the density field of the simulation to predict the number of sub-resolution dark matter haloes expected in different regions. The technique requires as input the abundance of haloes of a given mass and their average clustering, as expressed through the linear and higher order bias factors. These quantities can be computed analytically or, more accurately, derived from a higher resolution simulation as done here. Our method can recover the abundance and clustering in real- and redshift-space of haloes with mass below $\sim 7.5 \times 10^{13}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$ at $z=0$ to better than 10%. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to an ensemble of 50 low resolution, large-volume $N$-body simulations to compute the correlation function and covariance matrix of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The limited resolution of the original simulations results in them resolving just two thirds of the LRG population. We extend the resolution of the simulations by a factor of 30 in halo mass in order to recover all LRGs. With existing simulations it is possible to generate a halo catalogue equivalent to that which would be obtained from a $N$-body simulation using more than 20 trillion particles; a direct simulation of this size is likely to remain unachievable for many years. Using our method it is now feasible to build the large numbers of high-resolution large volume mock galaxy catalogues required to compute the covariance matrices necessary to analyse upcoming galaxy surveys designed to probe dark energy.
The Properties of Spiral Galaxies: Confronting Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models with Observations
Eric F. Bell,Carlton M. Baugh,Shaun Cole,Carlos S. Frenk,Cedric G. Lacey
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06673.x
Abstract: We compare the properties of local spiral galaxies with the predictions of the Cole et al. semi-analytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation, in order to gain insight into the baryonic processes that were responsible for shaping these galaxies. On the whole, the models reproduce the properties of present-day spirals (such as SFRs, SFHs, scale sizes, metallicities, and gas fractions) rather well. In particular, we find that once the effects of dust and variations in stellar populations have been taken into account, published spiral galaxy scale-size distributions derived from optical data (with logarithmic widths ~0.3) can be reconciled with the width of the stellar mass scale-size distribution predicted by the semi-analytic model (~0.5). There are some illuminating discrepancies between the observations and the model predictions. The model colours of luminous spiral galaxies are somewhat too blue and those of faint galaxies somewhat too red, most likely indicating shortcomings in the way that gas is accreted by spiral galaxies. Furthermore, the model produces too few luminous spiral galaxies. These difficulties could be resolved by altering the way in which gas cooling is treated or, perhaps, by adopting a higher baryon fraction and invoking galactic `superwinds.' Secondly, stellar M/Ls are found to be as high as observations permit. Yet, typically 60% of the mass in the inner half-light radius of the model galaxies is dark. This results in an offset between the model and observed spiral galaxy luminosity-linewidth relation. This could be resolved by substantially reducing the mass of baryons which make it into a galaxy disc (with an attendant decrease in stellar M/L), or by modifying the assumed dark matter profile to include less dark matter in the inner parts. [Abridged]
The evolution of the star forming sequence in hierarchical galaxy formation models
Peter D. Mitchell,Cedric G. Lacey,Shaun Cole,Carlton M. Baugh
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1639
Abstract: It has been argued that the specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies inferred from observational data decline more rapidly below z = 2 than is predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models. We present a detailed analysis of this problem by comparing predictions from the GALFORM semi-analytic model with an extensive compilation of data on the average star formation rates of star-forming galaxies. We also use this data to infer the form of the stellar mass assembly histories of star forming galaxies. Our analysis reveals that the currently available data favour a scenario where the stellar mass assembly histories of star forming galaxies rise at early times and then fall towards the present day. In contrast, our model predicts stellar mass assembly histories that are almost flat below z = 2 for star forming galaxies, such that the predicted star formation rates can be offset with respect to the observational data by factors of up to 2-3. This disagreement can be explained by the level of coevolution between stellar and halo mass assembly that exists in contemporary galaxy formation models. In turn, this arises because the standard implementations of star formation and supernova feedback used in the models result in the efficiencies of these process remaining approximately constant over the lifetime of a given star forming galaxy. We demonstrate how a modification to the timescale for gas ejected by feedback to be reincorporated into galaxy haloes can help to reconcile the model predictions with the data.
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