oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2020 ( 46 )

2019 ( 232 )

2018 ( 244 )

2017 ( 257 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 148837 matches for " Cecilia Albala B "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /148837
Display every page Item
Desigualdades en salud: adulto en comunas del Gran Santiago
Sánchez R,Hugo; Albala B,Cecilia;
Revista médica de Chile , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872004000400007
Abstract: background: in the last decade, chile achieved a significant reduction in poverty, however income distribution still shows inequalities. the richest 10% of the population perceived 46% of total income. aim: to study the relationship between territorial socioeconomic segregation and adult mortality in the metropolitan area of santiago de chile. material and methods: data from the 34 districts of metropolitan santiago were analyzed. adjusted community mortality rates, during 2000, among adults aged 20 years or more, including specific rates per sex and age group, were analyzed. results: there was a negative correlation between income and mortality, specially among men (rs -0.42 p <0.005). the highest correlation coefficient was observed among subjects aged 45-64 years old (rs -0.42 p <0.005). there was a high degree of inequality in mortality among males aged 20-44 years old (gini 0.54) and in the age group 45-64 years old in both sexes (gini 0.50). mortality rates decreased along with increasing incomes in both sexes. 20/20 ratio shows the higher values for mortality of men aged 20-44 years (20/20 ratio 1.7 95% ci 1.4-2.0), followed by mortality of men aged 45-64 years. conclusions: there is a relationship between economic segregation (expressed by income) and mortality. the higher mortality rates are observed in districts of metropolitan santiago with the lower income (rev méd chile 2004; 132: 453-60)
Desigualdades en salud: adulto en comunas del Gran Santiago Inequalities in health. Adult mortality in communities of Metropolitan Santiago
Hugo Sánchez R,Cecilia Albala B
Revista médica de Chile , 2004,
Abstract: Background: In the last decade, Chile achieved a significant reduction in poverty, however income distribution still shows inequalities. The richest 10% of the population perceived 46% of total income. Aim: To study the relationship between territorial socioeconomic segregation and adult mortality in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. Material and methods: Data from the 34 districts of Metropolitan Santiago were analyzed. Adjusted community mortality rates, during 2000, among adults aged 20 years or more, including specific rates per sex and age group, were analyzed. Results: There was a negative correlation between income and mortality, specially among men (rS -0.42 p <0.005). The highest correlation coefficient was observed among subjects aged 45-64 years old (rS -0.42 p <0.005). There was a high degree of inequality in mortality among males aged 20-44 years old (Gini 0.54) and in the age group 45-64 years old in both sexes (Gini 0.50). Mortality rates decreased along with increasing incomes in both sexes. 20/20 ratio shows the higher values for mortality of men aged 20-44 years (20/20 ratio 1.7 95% CI 1.4-2.0), followed by mortality of men aged 45-64 years. Conclusions: There is a relationship between economic segregation (expressed by income) and mortality. The higher mortality rates are observed in districts of Metropolitan Santiago with the lower income (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 453-60)
A?os de vida perdidos por muerte prematura (AVPP) en adultos del Gran Santiago: ?Hemos ganado con equidad?
Sánchez R,Hugo; Albala B,Cecilia; Lera M,Lydia;
Revista médica de Chile , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872005000500010
Abstract: background: potentially productive years of life lost (ppyll) is an impact measure that illustrates the lost that a society suffers as a consequence of deaths of young people or premature deaths. aim: to study the evolution of ppyll in adults in the periods 1994-1996 and 1999-2001, according to sex, income quintiles and main diagnostic groups in the communities of metropolitan santiago. material and methods: ecological study analyzing the population of metropolitan santiago, that represents 36% of the national population. a total of 87,969 deaths in people aged 20 to 79 years were analyzed. results: there is a greater amount of ppyll among the poorest quintiles and men represent the higher number of ppyll. in the different analyzed periods, all quintiles experienced a reduction in ppyll. according to diagnosis, endocrine diseases experienced the greater decrease between periods, followed by respiratory disease. noteworthy was the increase of ppyll due to infectious diseases. ppyll due to digestive diseases was 2.3 higher in the poorest quintile, as compared with the wealthiest quintile (20/20 ratio). the ratio for traumatic disease was 1.8. conclusions: when comparing both periods, there is a net gain of potentially productive years of life in all income quintiles and in both genders
Validación de un test de tamizaje para el diagnóstico de demencia asociada a edad, en Chile
Quiroga L,Pilar; Albala B,Cecilia; Klaasen P,Gonzalo;
Revista médica de Chile , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872004000400009
Abstract: background: the real prevalence of dementia in a given population must be determined through prevalence studies, using validated screening tests. aim: to validate and determine cutoff points for a cognitive impairment screening test composed by the folstein mini mental state examination (mmse) and pfeffer functional activities questionnaire (pfaq). material and methods: validation of the diagnostic test in a sample of 100 subjects over 65 years old (85 from the project ?age associated dementias? and 15 with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia). all were subjected to a complete neuropsychological test by a trained neurologist, that constituted the ?gold standard? for the diagnosis of dementia. an independent interviewer applied the mmse to the subjects and the pfaq to a next of kin informer. cutoff points were calculated using roc curves. the points with the better equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity were selected, considering differences in results between groups with low and high educational level. results: the cutoff point for mmse was 21/22, with a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% ci 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 46.1% (95% ci 34.7-57.8%). the figure for pfaq was 5/6, with a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% ci 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 70.7% (95% ci 58.9-80.3%). the combination of both instruments gave a sensitivity of 94.4% (95% ci 58.9-80.3%) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% ci 72.3-90.7%). conclusions: this screening test, using mmse and pfaq, has a good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia in chile. being simple and of low cost, it can be applied in primary health care (rev méd chile 2004; 132: 467-78)
Validación de un test de tamizaje para el diagnóstico de demencia asociada a edad, en Chile Validation of a screening test for age associated cognitive impairment, in Chile
Pilar Quiroga L,Cecilia Albala B,Gonzalo Klaasen P
Revista médica de Chile , 2004,
Abstract: Background: The real prevalence of dementia in a given population must be determined through prevalence studies, using validated screening tests. Aim: To validate and determine cutoff points for a cognitive impairment screening test composed by the Folstein Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). Material and methods: Validation of the diagnostic test in a sample of 100 subjects over 65 years old (85 from the project Age associated dementias and 15 with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia). All were subjected to a complete neuropsychological test by a trained neurologist, that constituted the gold standard for the diagnosis of dementia. An independent interviewer applied the MMSE to the subjects and the PFAQ to a next of kin informer. Cutoff points were calculated using ROC curves. The points with the better equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity were selected, considering differences in results between groups with low and high educational level. Results: The cutoff point for MMSE was 21/22, with a sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 46.1% (95% CI 34.7-57.8%). The figure for PFAQ was 5/6, with a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI 70.6-99.7%) and a specificity of 70.7% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%). The combination of both instruments gave a sensitivity of 94.4% (95% CI 58.9-80.3%) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI 72.3-90.7%). Conclusions: This screening test, using MMSE and PFAQ, has a good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia in Chile. Being simple and of low cost, it can be applied in primary health care (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 467-78)
A os de vida perdidos por muerte prematura (AVPP) en adultos del Gran Santiago: Hemos ganado con equidad? Potentially productive years of life lost among adults in Metropolitan Santiago: Is there an improvement in equality?
Hugo Sánchez R,Cecilia Albala B,Lydia Lera M
Revista médica de Chile , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Potentially productive years of life lost (PPYLL) is an impact measure that illustrates the lost that a society suffers as a consequence of deaths of young people or premature deaths. Aim: To study the evolution of PPYLL in adults in the periods 1994-1996 and 1999-2001, according to sex, income quintiles and main diagnostic groups in the communities of Metropolitan Santiago. Material and methods: Ecological study analyzing the population of Metropolitan Santiago, that represents 36% of the national population. A total of 87,969 deaths in people aged 20 to 79 years were analyzed. Results: There is a greater amount of PPYLL among the poorest quintiles and men represent the higher number of PPYLL. In the different analyzed periods, all quintiles experienced a reduction in PPYLL. According to diagnosis, endocrine diseases experienced the greater decrease between periods, followed by respiratory disease. Noteworthy was the increase of PPYLL due to infectious diseases. PPYLL due to digestive diseases was 2.3 higher in the poorest quintile, as compared with the wealthiest quintile (20/20 ratio). The ratio for traumatic disease was 1.8. Conclusions: When comparing both periods, there is a net gain of potentially productive years of life in all income quintiles and in both genders
Efecto sobre la salud de las desigualdades socioeconómicas en el adulto mayor: Resultados basales del estudio expectativa de vida saludable y discapacidad relacionada con la obesidad (Alexandros) Socioeconomic inequalities in active life expectancy and disability related to obesity among older people
Cecilia Albala,Hugo Sánchez,Lydia Lera,Bárbara Angel
Revista médica de Chile , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The rapid increase in life expectancy in Chile, with obesity as the main nutritional problem in all age groups, makes it necessary to ask whether the years gained are healthy. Aim: To study the trajectories of disability associated with obesity in Chilean elderly groups from different socio-economic and demographic backgrounds. Material and Methods: Longitudinal study of 3 cohorts of older adults from Santiago: the SABE cohort including 1235 people born before 1940; the Alexandros cohort including 950 people born between 1940 and 1948 from Primary Health Care centers and the ISAPRES cohort of 266 people from private health insurance registries (ISAPRES) born before 1947. An interview yielded socio demographic data and history of diseases. Anthropometric measurements and hand dynamometry were performed. Cognitive status was assessed by the mini mental state examination, depressive symptoms through the geriatric depression socore-5 and functional limitations through self-reporting of basic (ADL), instrumental (IADL) and advanced daily living (AADL) activities. Results: We report here baseline results from ISAPRES and SABE cohorts. Important social and gender differentials were observed. After adjustment by age and gender, a significant lower frequency of limitations in ADL (odds ratio (OR) = 0.17; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.079-0.343), IADL (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.159-0.452), and AADL (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.298-0.599) persisted in the ISAPRE cohort, compared to the SABE cohort. Obesity was associated with functional limitations only in AADL (OR = 1.65; 95%CI: 1.18-2.31) and hand dynamometry was associated with lower functional limitation in ADL, IADL and AADL. Conclusions: This study demonstrates profound socio-economic and gender inequalities in older people, thus showing that the years of healthy life gained are not the same for the whole society.
Metabolic changes and eating behaviors
Cecilia Albala
Medwave , 2010,
Abstract:
Prevalencia de diabetes tipo 2 y obesidad en dos poblaciones aborígenes de Chile en ambiente urbano Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in two Chilean aboriginal populations living in urban zones
Elena Carrasco P,Francisco Pérez B,Bárbara Angel B,Cecilia Albala B
Revista médica de Chile , 2004,
Abstract: Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is increasing in aboriginal populations in Chile. Aim: To study the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and serum lipids in two aboriginal populations, Mapuche and Aymara, that were transferred from a rural to a urban environment. Subjects and Methods: Two groups of subjects over 20 years were analyzed, Mapuche and Aymara. The Mapuche group was formed by 42 men and 105 women, living in four urban communities of Santiago, and an Aymara group formed by 42 men and 118 women, living in Arica, in Northern Chile. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and serum leptin were determined. Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 6.9% in Aymara and 8.2% in Mapuche subjects. The frequency of glucose intolerance was similar in both groups, but greater among men. A total blood cholesterol over 200 mg/dl was observed in 43.1% of Aymara and 27.9% of Mapuche subjects (p <0.008). Serum triglycerides over 150 mg/dl were observed in 16.9 and 23.1% of Aymara and Mapuche individuals, respectively (p= NS). Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in urban aboriginal populations is higher than that of their rural counterparts. A possible explanation for these results are changes in lifestyles that come along with urbanization, characterized by a high consumption of saturated fat and refined sugars and a low level of physical activity (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 1189-97)
Polimorfismo de la proteína ligante de ácidos grasos intestinal (FABP2), obesidad e insulina resistencia
Albala B,Cecilia; Jiménez R,Beatriz; Pérez B,Francisco; Liberman G,Claudio;
Revista médica de Chile , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872006000300017
Abstract: the genetic components of insulin-resistance, diabetes and obesity have been largely studied. these conditions are determined by multiple polygenic and environmental factors. certain candidate genes, that have common functional variants in the general population, may be important determinants of inter-individual differences in the response to dietary changes. this review focuses in one of the major candidate genes, the gene encoding for the fabp2, an intracellular protein expressed only in the intestine, involved in the absorption and intracellular transport of dietary long chain fatty acids. carriers of the thr54 allele in fabp2 have a 2-fold greater affinity for long chain fatty acids than ala54 carriers. the increased flux of dietary fatty acids (fa) into the circulation, among carriers of fabp2 ala54thr, supports a role of the polymorphism of this allele in the etiology of metabolic disorders. the frequencies of the polymorphism in different populations fluctuate between 18% and 40%. fabp2 ala54thr variant has been associated with an increased fasting insulin concentration, fasting fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose uptake. this evidence, although not conclusive, sustains an association between fabp-2 genotype and metabolic abnormalities
Page 1 /148837
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.