Abstract:
Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

Abstract:
La mer a longtemps été per ue pour la société maure comme un monde en marge, étranger et étrange. Seule exception notable : la relation liant les communautés imragen à l’espace maritime. Dans la perception imragen de la mer se présentent d’emblée comme enchevêtrés les mondes naturels et surnaturels. Les modalités de leur articulation procèdent toutefois de logiques que seuls distinguent et ma trisent certains initiés, dépositaires du secret de la mer . Quelques familles, issues des groupes maraboutiques Barikalla et Buhubbayni, ont ainsi réussi à asseoir leur légitimité sur la c te par l’exercice de pouvoirs supposés influencer le cours des phénomènes naturels (vents, intensité des courants, cycle de la lune) ou le comportement d’espèces marines (dauphins et tortues), dont ils ont fait leurs principaux émissaires. Quelles sont la nature, l’efficacité et les limites de ce pouvoir sur la mer? Comment inscrit-il le marabout au c ur de l’écologie imragen, le sacré au principe de l’équilibre naturel ? C’est à ces questionnements que nous nous proposons d’apporter quelques éléments d’analyse. To Moorish society the sea has long been a marginal world, both foreign and strange, with one notable exception: the link between imragen communities and the maritime space. The imragen immediate perception of the sea is one of intertwined natural and supernatural worlds. The details of their relation, however, are based on mechanisms that only a few insiders, custodians of the "secret of the sea" can identify and control. Some families, from Barikalla and Buhubbayni marabout groups have managed to establish their legitimacy on the coast through the exercise of powers thought to influence the course of natural phenomena (wind, current intensity, moon phases) or the behavior of marine species (dolphins and turtles), that they appropriated as emissaries. What is the nature, effectiveness and limitations of such power over the sea? How does it place the marabout at the heart of imragen ecology, how does the sacred fit in with the principle of natural balance? The purpose of our analysis is to shed some light on these issues.

Abstract:
Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FAIT/NAIT) [1] or foeto-maternal alloimmunisation thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) [2].Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT) is a disorder caused by foetomaternal platelet incompatibility that usually presents as severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in otherwise healthy newborns. It results from destruction of the foetal platelets by maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies elicited during pregnancy and directed against foetus-specific platelet antigens that are inherited from the father and are different from those present in the mother [1].Clinically, the diagnosis is suspected when an otherwise healthy neonate, born after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery, exhibits petechiae or widespread purpura at birth or a few hours after birth. Visceral haemorrhages are less common. The mother is typically healthy, with no previous history of thrombocytopaenia, auto-immune disorders or ingestion of drugs. The infant has no clinical signs of infection or malformations (see Differential diagnosis). Approximately 20% of these infants show evidence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) leading to death or neurological sequelae (see Prognosis). The platelet count is low at birth and may be associated with anaemia, secondary to bleeding. Platelet immunological investigations will confirm the maternal specific alloimmunisation (see Diagnostic methods).NAIT is the commonest cause of severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in the foetus and newborn. Prospective studies showed that it occurs in about 1 in 800 or 1000 live births [3,4]. Unselected cohort of neonates reported 0.9% frequency of neonatal thrombocytopaenia [5]. Immune aetiology was demonstrated in one third of these cases. As thrombocytopaenia when moderate (whatever its cause) is often silent, systematic neonatal blood sampling for a platelet count is the only possible way to detect neonatal thrombocytopaenia and to provide better management of the infant and subsequent pregnanci

Abstract:
The fight against poverty is inextricably bound up with ecological issues. There is no shortage of global threats, from the environmental and social effects of climate warming to the decline in available freshwater per person or the growing scarcity of natural resources (fossil energy reserves, of course, but also rare earths and metals). Not everybody on this planet can, or will ever be able to, live their lives according to the American or European model. For example, strategic minerals lik...

Abstract:
Les grandes entreprises sont aujourd’hui interpellées sur leur contribution à la création de richesses, à l’emploi, à l’orientation vers de nouveaux modèles industriels et économiques et au développement des pays du Sud. On peut distinguer quatre responsabilités principales, correspondant aux différentes parties prenantes et dimensions de l’activité de l’entreprise : économique et financière, sociale, sociétale et environnementale, et politique. Deux responsabilités moins directes sont ajoutées : une responsabilité extraordinaire, en cas d’urgence, et une responsabilité surérogatoire , concernant la philanthropie.

Abstract:
This article deals with transport properties of one dimensional Brownian diffusion under the influence of a correlated quenched random force, distributed as a two-level Poisson process. We find in particular that large time scaling laws of the position of the Brownian particle are analogous to the uncorrelated case. We discuss also the probability distribution of the stationary flux going through a sample between two prescribed concentrations, which differs significantly from the uncorrelated case.

Abstract:
The Random Transverse Field Ising Chain is the simplest disordered model presenting a quantum phase transition at T=0. We compare analytically its finite-size scaling properties in two different ensembles for the disorder (i) the canonical ensemble, where the disorder variables are independent (ii) the microcanonical ensemble, where there exists a global constraint on the disorder variables. The observables under study are the surface magnetization, the correlation of the two surface magnetizations, the gap and the end-to-end spin-spin correlation $C(L)$ for a chain of length $L$. At criticality, each observable decays typically as $e^{- w \sqrt{L}}$ in both ensembles, but the probability distributions of the rescaled variable $w$ are different in the two ensembles, in particular in their asymptotic behaviors. As a consequence, the dependence in $L$ of averaged observables differ in the two ensembles. For instance, the correlation $C(L)$ decays algebraically as 1/L in the canonical ensemble, but sub-exponentially as $e^{-c L^{1/3}}$ in the microcanonical ensemble. Off criticality, probability distributions of rescaled variables are governed by the critical exponent $\nu=2$ in both ensembles, but the following observables are governed by the exponent $\tilde \nu=1$ in the microcanonical ensemble, instead of the exponent $\nu=2$ in the canonical ensemble (a) in the disordered phase : the averaged surface magnetization, the averaged correlation of the two surface magnetizations and the averaged end-to-end spin-spin correlation (b) in the ordered phase : the averaged gap. In conclusion, the measure of the rare events that dominate various averaged observables can be very sensitive to the microcanonical constraint.

Abstract:
We study the anomalous diffusion phase $x ~ t^{\mu}$ with $0<\mu<1$ which exists both in the Sinai diffusion at small bias, and in the related directed trap model presenting a large distribution of trapping time $p(\tau) \sim 1/\tau^{1+\mu}$. Our starting point is the Real Space Renormalization method in which the whole thermal packet is considered to be in the same renormalized valley at large time : this assumption is exact only in the limit $\mu \to 0$ and corresponds to the Golosov localization. For finite $\mu$, we thus generalize the usual RSRG method to allow for the spreading of the thermal packet over many renormalized valleys. Our construction allows to compute exact series expansions in $\mu$ of all observables : at order $\mu^n$, it is sufficient to consider a spreading of the thermal packet onto at most $(1+n)$ traps in each sample, and to average with the appropriate measure over the samples. For the directed trap model, we show explicitly up to order $\mu^2$ how to recover the diffusion front, the thermal width, and the localization parameter $Y_2$. We moreover compute the localization parameters $Y_k$ for arbitrary $k$, the correlation function of two particles, and the generating function of thermal cumulants. We then explain how these results apply to the Sinai diffusion with bias, by deriving the quantitative mapping between the large-scale renormalized descriptions of the two models.

Abstract:
We study in details the dynamics of the one dimensional symmetric trap model, via a real-space renormalization procedure which becomes exact in the limit of zero temperature. In this limit, the diffusion front in each sample consists in two delta peaks, which are completely out of equilibrium with each other. The statistics of the positions and weights of these delta peaks over the samples allows to obtain explicit results for all observables in the limit $T \to 0$. We first compute disorder averages of one-time observables, such as the diffusion front, the thermal width, the localization parameters, the two-particle correlation function, and the generating function of thermal cumulants of the position. We then study aging and sub-aging effects : our approach reproduces very simply the two different aging exponents and yields explicit forms for scaling functions of the various two-time correlations. We also extend the RSRG method to include systematic corrections to the previous zero temperature procedure via a series expansion in $T$. We then consider the generalized trap model with parameter $\alpha \in [0,1]$ and obtain that the large scale effective model at low temperature does not depend on $\alpha$ in any dimension, so that the only observables sensitive to $\alpha$ are those that measure the `local persistence', such as the probability to remain exactly in the same trap during a time interval. Finally, we extend our approach at a scaling level for the trap model in $d=2$ and obtain the two relevant time scales for aging properties.