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Herpesviruses and Autophagy: Catch Me If You Can!
Yolaine Cavignac,Audrey Esclatine
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2010314
Abstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation pathway involving the digestion of intracellular components via the lysosomal pathway. The autophagic pathway constitutively maintains cellular homeostasis by recycling cytoplasmic organelles and proteins, but it is also stimulated by environmental stress conditions, such as starvation, oxidative stress, and the accumulation of misfolded proteins. It also acts as a cellular defense mechanism against microorganisms by contributing to both the innate and adaptive immunity, and by eliminating intracellular pathogens (xenophagy). There is growing evidence that host cells try to control Herpesvirus infections by activating the autophagic machinery. However, it is well-known that Herpesviruses are smart pathogens and several, such as HSV-1, HCMV and HHV-8, are known to have developed numerous defense strategies for evading the host’s immune response. Inhibition of the antiviral autophagic mechanism has also been reported. Autophagy has also been shown to enhance the major histocompatibility complex presentation of at least two viral proteins, the EBVencoded EBNA-1 and the HSV-1 encoded gB. In this review, we present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the complex interplay between autophagy and Herpesviruses.
L'Américanisme fran?ais au début du XXème siècle: projets politiques, muséologie et terrains brésiliens
Cavignac, Julie A.;
Vibrant: Virtual Brazilian Anthropology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1809-43412012000100002
Abstract: this article aims to evaluate the importance of americanist studies and the place of french researchers in the constitution of an international research network in the early 20th century. we try to understand how this disciplinary field emerged centered on the native american people, especially their cultural and social specificities. an analysis of the methodological underpinnings of the first collections reveals that special attention was given to the collection and the study of material culture since it bore witness to the diversity of human societies. young collaborators were hired to be in charge of and to analyze the collection of objects for the musée de l'homme in order to fill the lacuna of knowledge of the "native americans cultures". lévi-strauss' two missions (1935 and 1938) to make the inventory of the material culture that were part of this project inaugurated a new phase of americanist studies, focussed on the study of social structure. we evaluate the importance of this change for americanist research in the amazon and the consolidation of an international research network that came into being prior to the second world war. such a documental review, which questions the 'museologized' ethnographic object, is important because it allows us to reread the history of the discipline, in the light of the importance of the historical contexts, political debates and the place of americanist studies in brazil and in france. it is also possible to define the limits of an anthropology which becomes autonomous and takes a critical position in relation to colonial states and welfare services provided to native americans.
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