Abstract:
The switch chain is a well-known Markov chain for sampling directed graphs with a given degree sequence. While not ergodic in general, we show that it is ergodic for regular degree sequences. We then prove that the switch chain is rapidly mixing for regular directed graphs of degree d, where d is any positive integer-valued function of the number of vertices. We bound the mixing time by bounding the eigenvalues of the chain. A new result is presented and applied to bound the smallest (most negative) eigenvalue. This result is a modification of a lemma by Diaconis and Stroock, and by using it we avoid working with a lazy chain. A multicommodity flow argument is used to bound the second-largest eigenvalue of the chain. This argument is based on the analysis of a related Markov chain for undirected regular graphs by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, but with significant extension required.

Abstract:
The mixing time of an ergodic, reversible Markov chain can be bounded in terms of the eigenvalues of the chain: specifically, the second-largest eigenvalue and the smallest eigenvalue. It has become standard to focus only on the second-largest eigenvalue, by making the Markov chain "lazy". (A lazy chain does nothing at each step with probability at least 1/2, and has only nonnegative eigenvalues.) An alternative approach to bounding the smallest eigenvalue was given by Diaconis and Stroock and Diaconis and Saloff-Coste. We give examples to show that using this approach it can be quite easy to obtain a bound on the smallest eigenvalue of a combinatorial Markov chain which is several orders of magnitude below the best-known bound on the second-largest eigenvalue.

Abstract:
The problem of efficiently sampling from a set of(undirected) graphs with a given degree sequence has many applications. One approach to this problem uses a simple Markov chain, which we call the switch chain, to perform the sampling. The switch chain is known to be rapidly mixing for regular degree sequences. We prove that the switch chain is rapidly mixing for any degree sequence with minimum degree at least 1 and with maximum degree $d_{\max}$ which satisfies $3\leq d_{\max}\leq \frac{1}{4}\, \sqrt{M}$, where $M$ is the sum of the degrees. The mixing time bound obtained is only an order of $n$ larger than that established in the regular case, where $n$ is the number of vertices.

Abstract:
Let $r \geq 2$ be a fixed integer. For infinitely many $n$, let $\boldsymbol{k} = (k_1,..., k_n)$ be a vector of nonnegative integers such that their sum $M$ is divisible by $r$. We present an asymptotic enumeration formula for simple $r$-uniform hypergraphs with degree sequence $k$. (Here "simple" means that all edges are distinct and no edge contains a repeated vertex.) Our formula holds whenever the maximum degree $k_{\mathrm{max}}$ satisfies $k_{\mathrm{max}}^3 = o(M)$.

Abstract:
A hypergraph is simple if it has no loops and no repeated edges, and a hypergraph is linear if it is simple and each pair of edges intersects in at most one vertex. For $n\geq 3$, let $r= r(n)\geq 3$ be an integer and let $\boldsymbol{k} = (k_1,\ldots, k_n)$ be a vector of nonnegative integers, where each $k_j = k_j(n)$ may depend on $n$. Let $M = M(n) = \sum_{j=1}^n k_j$ for all $n\geq 3$, and define the set $\mathcal{I} = \{ n\geq 3 \mid r(n) \text{ divides } M(n)\}$. We assume that $\mathcal{I}$ is infinite, and perform asymptotics as $n$ tends to infinity along $\mathcal{I}$. Our main result is an asymptotic enumeration formula for linear $r$-uniform hypergraphs with degree sequence $\boldsymbol{k}$. This formula holds whenever the maximum degree $k_{\max}$ satisfies $r^4 k_{\max}^4(k_{\max} + r) = o(M)$. Our approach is to work with the incidence matrix of a hypergraph, interpreted as the biadjacency matrix of a bipartite graph, enabling us to apply known enumeration results for bipartite graphs. This approach also leads to a new asymptotic enumeration formula for simple uniform hypergraphs with specified degrees, and a result regarding the girth of random bipartite graphs with specified degrees.

Abstract:
Let \svec = (s_1,...,s_m) and \tvec = (t_1,...,t_n) be vectors of nonnegative integer-valued functions of m,n with equal sum S = sum_{i=1}^m s_i = sum_{j=1}^n t_j. Let M(\svec,\tvec) be the number of m*n matrices with nonnegative integer entries such that the i-th row has row sum s_i and the j-th column has column sum t_j for all i,j. Such matrices occur in many different settings, an important example being the contingency tables (also called frequency tables) important in statistics. Define s=max_i s_i and t=max_j t_j. Previous work has established the asymptotic value of M(\svec,\tvec) as m,n\to\infty with s and t bounded (various authors independently, 1971-1974), and when \svec,\tvec are constant vectors with m/n,n/m,s/n >= c/log n for sufficiently large (Canfield and McKay, 2007). In this paper we extend the sparse range to the case st=o(S^(2/3)). The proof in part follows a previous asymptotic enumeration of 0-1 matrices under the same conditions (Greenhill, McKay and Wang, 2006). We also generalise the enumeration to matrices over any subset of the nonnegative integers that includes 0 and 1.

Abstract:
Let S and T be vectors of positive integers with the same sum. We study the uniform distribution on the space of simple bipartite graphs with degree sequence S in one part and T in the other; equivalently, binary matrices with row sums S and column sums T. In particular, we find precise formulae for the probabilities that a given bipartite graph is edge-disjoint from, a subgraph of, or an induced subgraph of a random graph in the class. We also give similar formulae for the uniform distribution on the set of simple directed graphs with out-degrees S and in-degrees T. In each case, the graphs or digraphs are required to be sufficiently dense, with the degrees varying within certain limits, and the subgraphs are required to be sufficiently sparse. Previous results were restricted to spaces of sparse graphs. Our theorems are based on an enumeration of bipartite graphs avoiding a given set of edges, proved by multidimensional complex integration. As a sample application, we determine the expected permanent of a random binary matrix with row sums S and column sums T.

Abstract:
Let J and J* be subsets of Z+ such that 0,1\in J and 0\in J*. For infinitely many n, let k=(k_1,..., k_n) be a vector of nonnegative integers whose sum M is even. We find an asymptotic expression for the number of multigraphs on the vertex set {1,..., n} with degree sequence given by k, such that every loop has multiplicity in J* and every non-loop edge has multiplicity in J. Equivalently, these are symmetric integer matrices with values J* allowed on the diagonal and J off the diagonal. Our expression holds when the maximum degree K satisfies K = o(M^(1/3)). We prove this result using the switching method, building on an asymptotic enumeration of simple graphs with given degrees (McKay and Wormald, 1991). Our application of the switching method introduces a novel way of combining several different switching operations into a single computation.

Abstract:
We investigate the following vertex percolation process. Starting with a random regular graph of constant degree, delete each vertex independently with probability p, where p=n^{-alpha} and alpha=alpha(n) is bounded away from 0. We show that a.a.s. the resulting graph has a connected component of size n-o(n) which is an expander, and all other components are trees of bounded size. Sharper results are obtained with extra conditions on alpha. These results have an application to the cost of repairing a certain peer-to-peer network after random failures of nodes.

Abstract:
Let G be a fixed connected multigraph with no loops. A random n-lift of G is obtained by replacing each vertex of G by a set of n vertices (where these sets are pairwise disjoint) and replacing each edge by a randomly chosen perfect matching between the n-sets corresponding to the endpoints of the edge. Let X_G be the number of perfect matchings in a random lift of G. We study the distribution of X_G in the limit as n tends to infinity, using the small subgraph conditioning method. We present several results including an asymptotic formula for the expectation of X_G when G is d-regular, d\geq 3. The interaction of perfect matchings with short cycles in random lifts of regular multigraphs is also analysed. Partial calculations are performed for the second moment of X_G, with full details given for two example multigraphs, including the complete graph K_4. To assist in our calculations we provide a theorem for estimating a summation over multiple dimensions using Laplace's method. This result is phrased as a summation over lattice points, and may prove useful in future applications.