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Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples
Viviana Paiano,Elena Fattore,Andrea Carrà,Caterina Generoso,Roberto Fanelli,Renzo Bagnati
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/719010
Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA) acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04?ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96?ng/g and 1.89?ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption. 1. Introduction Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a large group of chemicals characterized by a fully fluorinated hydrophobic chain and an hydrophilic head. Such properties, in combination with a high chemical stability, make these compounds unique for their ability to repel both water and oils. Over the last 40 years PFCs have been produced for a large number of applications, such as surface treatments for coatings, clothes, carpets, packaging products, cookware, and food contact papers. Nowadays they are global contaminants which have been detected in environmental and biological samples from different areas worldwide [1–8]. Among these compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) seem to meet the criteria of persistence, biomagnifications, and long-distance transport to be included in the definition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), under the Stockholm Convention; moreover they cause particular concern because they have been shown to be carcinogenic in experimental animals [9–11]. Detailed toxicological studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferation, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, lipid metabolism, and developmental toxicity may be associated with chemical exposure to PFOS and PFOA [12–15]. Despite the fact that an increasing number of
The Cognitive Development of Sociology: The Contribution of John Stuart Mill  [PDF]
Caterina Galluccio
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.83011
Abstract: One may track the origin of sociology back to the work of individuals such as Auguste Comte among other prominent scholars in the nineteenth century. Comte work of a general way to deal with the investigation of society stands out as one of a major contribution towards the cognitive development of sociology. The development of cognitive sociology can also be attributed to the ancient publications in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, and cognitive and cultural anthropology. Arguably, scholars strive to understand the cognitive processes in order to understand how individuals come up with meanings for various phenomena in the society. John Stuart Mill deserves credit for his profound contribution in as far as the development of the methodology of the social science is concerned. His addition of a psychological perspective was critical to the development of sociology. Mill also incorporated the knowledge of psychology to explain what drives individuals to act in the manner they do while interacting with each other. Other than the deduction of the laws, Mill emphasized on the necessity of using an experiment to understand the personal and interpersonal interaction of individuals. However, other individuals who also made contributions to the development of the discipline of sociology dismissed and criticized his stand on the necessity of conducting experiments and not relying on deductive reasoning. Scholars who were opposed to Mill’s position subscribed to the idea of anti-psychologism. Some of the profound authors and scholars include Karl Marx, Max Weber, Watkins, L. von Mises, Popper, Menger, von Hayek, Boudon, and Elster among others. Popper stands out as one of the scholars who were sternly opposed to Mill’s idea of psychologism, contributing to the reinstatement of the autonomy of sociology and social laws. However, Millian convention and ideologies of integrating the psychologism perspective into sociology was adopted by several scholars from 1970s onwards. The purpose of this work is precisely to offer a more in-depth understanding of John Stuart Mill’s contribution to the cognitive development of sociology.
Trust in the Market: Institutions versus Social Capital  [PDF]
Caterina Galluccio
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.82008
Abstract: The principal objective of this research paper is to gain an in-depth understating on what is the critical driver of trust in the market, whether it is social capital or institutions. Works by several authors such as Robert Putnam, Ostrom, Francis Fukuyama, Douglass North, among others were used as primary sources for the research. It is, however, essential to note that there are no proven theories on what is the primary driver of trust in the market, but it is imperative to study a market to know whether institutions or social capital?are?the primary driver of trust in that particular market. The merits, demerits, and the composition of trust in social capital and institutions are identified in this paper. Generalized trust, values, and norms of reciprocity and cooperation are viewed as the key pillars of social capital and have an undeniable influence on confidence in markets. Trust in institutions, on the other hand, is influenced by the type of institution and institutional change. Organizations are viewed more formally by players in a market and are conceived to be credible; hence one cannot ignore their influence on trust in the market. According to this paper, trust in markets is driven by both social capital and institutions. One cannot solely rely on one and ignore the other. The interdependent relationship existing between institutions and social capital has a significant impact on economic, financial and financing decisions of the players in a market. Developing an even-handed, balanced employment of trust in social capital and trust in institutions could positively influence the socio-economic conditions of any market. In other words, to achieve their primary objective, which is profit maximization, the participants in a market have to learn how to strike a balance in the levels of trust they place on either social capital or institutions.
Methods for Selecting Ethical Investments: Some Sociological Explanations  [PDF]
Caterina Galluccio
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.84018
Abstract: Nowadays the need for an ethical and socially responsible approach to finance appears increasingly evident, yet the sphere of ethical finance does not have the success that one could imagine. This work reflects on the possible causes of this lukewarm or just partial response to ethical finance by investors and does so using the paradigm of methodological individualism as an explanatory tool, focusing in particular on the issues of individual responsibility and personal freedom.
Toward a Responsible Capitalism: A Need for Financial Education and Social Finance  [PDF]
Caterina Galluccio
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82014
Abstract: Ralf Dahrendorf, in his paper After the Crisis: Back to the Protestant Ethic? sought to find the causes that made the society decide to adopt debt-based capitalism while dropping the savings capitalism. He used Max Weber’s pieces to explain how thinking among the members of the society had transformed and how this contributed to the type of capitalism that had dominated the modern world. It is unquestionable that we cannot get into debt indefinitely— says Dahrendorf—but it’s certainly not possible a return to the Protestant ethics. So the key point is in what he calls responsible capitalism that includes the concepts of responsibility and trust and requires that the satisfaction of individual needs falls under a sustainable economic development model. The thesis presented in this paper is that, in order to facilitate the emergence of a new mentality based on responsibility, there should be more economic and social participation that can take place on the one hand, through processes of economic socialization and financial education and, on the other hand, through the selection of alternative financial instruments, particularly the ones which belong to the social finance. The latter includes in the broad sense socially responsible finance and micro-credit and, strictly speaking, the more recent phenomena of crowd funding and social impact investments.
Subjective Well-Being within Organizations: A Sociological Explanation  [PDF]
Caterina Galluccio
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82008
Abstract: Is subjective well-being within organizations a top-down or a bottom-up process? In other words, who is responsible for it? A number of theories exist and many support the principle of well-being driven by good leadership. This work takes a different tack. It develops a model of well-being where well-being is seen as the final result of a process that involves all the individuals who work in an organization at each level of the hierarchical structure. The paper argues that subjective well-being within organizations cannot be reduced to a psychological question, instead, it is, above all, a sociological, logical and epistemological issue. For this reason, it is suggested that it cannot depend on a single manager or even on a group of them. The argument finds its roots in the theory of methodological individualism; dispersed and tacit knowledge (F. Hayek and M. Polanyi); the fallibility of human nature (K. Popper); bounded rationality (H. Simon); the distribution of power within organizations (M. Crozier).
O funcionamento da linguagem na esquizofrenia: um estudo lacaniano
Generoso, Cláudia Maria;
ágora: Estudos em Teoria Psicanalítica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14982008000200007
Abstract: the mechanism of language in schizophrenia: a lacanian study. in order to characterize what is specific about the way language operates in schizophrenia, mapping and analysis of theoretical-clinical elements found in freud and lacan's texts will be carried out. the line of thought in this research will follow freud's notions from 1915 about "the word as a thing" and the "organ language", as well as lacan's conception from 1954 about "the symbolic as real" and the idea from the 1970's about the outer world of the schizophrenic in relation to social bonding. such elements will be exemplified through clinical vignettes and the report of louis wolfson, a schizophrenic.
Proposta de acolhimento diferenciado a pais de crian as com queixas de altera es de linguagem Proposal of differentiated care to parents of children with complaints of language alterations
Márcia Generoso Ribeiro
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s1516-80342012000300024
Diagnosis and management of lysosomal storage disorders. Three key words: early, multidisciplinary, and network
Generoso Andria,Giuseppe Limongelli
Cardiogenetics , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/cardiogenetics.2013.s1.e1
Abstract: The European Commission on Public Health defines as rare diseases life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them...
Wine Consumption in the Mediterranean Diet: Old Concepts in a New Sight  [PDF]
Caterina Carollo, Gregorio Caimi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.312226
Abstract: The term “Mediterranean diet” is widely employed to indicate the typical diet of the Countries located on the Mediterranean sea coast. A growing body of scientific literature pointed out the healthy effects of this diet. In recent years we investigated about the protective effects of a regular and moderate wine consumption. As we know, alcoholic and non alcoholic wine constituents are responsible of different effects by means of molecular and cell mechanisms. Among the non alcoholic components, polyphenols (for example resveratrol and quercetin) were deeply investigated. The aim of this review is to underline the effects of a moderate and regular wine drinking in the context of the Mediterranean diet in light of the interactions between wine and important dietary factors such as olive oil, fruit and vegetables.
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