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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4033 matches for " Caroline Baynes "
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Self-Directed Learners or Not? Delivering Agroforestry Technology to Farmers in the Philippines  [PDF]
Jack Baynes, John Herbohn
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2011.11001
Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the usefulness of a participatory approach and adult learning principles for agroforestry extension in the Philippines. Visual observations and analysis of interviews with farmers during an extension program found that their ability to act as self-directed adult learners changed according to the situations with which they were faced. Farmers used a self-directed approach to their selection of inputs for the establishment of woodlots. However, when propagating seedlings, lack of technical knowledge caused them to shift to a state of dependency on ‘top-down’ didactic instruction. Farmers’ familiarity with agricultural crops, e.g. rice and coconuts, did not provide them with the skills to raise tree seedlings. A consequence of farmers applying their own interpretation of woodlot establishment procedures was that some sites were destroyed and seedling growth on other sites was poor. These failed woodlots are likely to present a negative image of the program in the future. Contributing influences to farmers’ limited uptake of technology may have been a lack of other sources of support and information and the difficulty of interacting and sharing ideas with their peers. The practical implications of this research are that farmers in developing countries may lack the education, support services and peer-to-peer interaction to behave similarly to self-directed learners in developed countries. A totally participatory approach to program delivery may maintain participants’ enthusiasm and commitment but may result in unforseen outcomes. Hence, a flexible approach to the use of adult learning principles may be necessary.
Deliberative democracy and public reason
Baynes, Kenneth
Veritas , 2010,
Abstract: O artigo reexamina as concep es habermasianas de política deliberativa e democracia procedimental à luz de outras teorias deliberativas, de forma a explorar as suas semelhan as e diferen as e investigar o quanto devem à ideia de raz o pública e as implica es práticas daquela ideia.
Democratic equality and respect
Baynes, Kenneth
Veritas , 2008,
Abstract: O artigo procura mostrar que a idéia liberal de assegurar uma igual liberdade para todos deve ser reexaminada em dois ambitos de discuss es acerca de um desejável equilibrio entre liberdade e igualdade, de forma a evitar a separa o tanto da liberdade e da igualdade como dos domínios opondo reivindica es formais e substantivas. Estas devem antes ser consideradas em suas condi es correlatas, exigidas para um exercício democrático efetivo da autonomia privada e pública dos cidad os, como foi sugerido por Habermas. O artigo mostra que a quest o da igualdade de condi o n o pode evitar as dificeis quest es suscitadas pelo chamado debate sobre a "diferen a" e tentavidas de ir "além da igualdade e da diferen a" e tentavidas de ir "além da igualdade e da diferen a "ou de "reconstituir" um ideal de igual cidadania numa democracia. Deve lidar com aspectos levantados em discuss es sobre a igualdade de condi o e o respeito. The article seeks to show that the liberal idea of securing an equal liberty for all must be reexamined in the two sets of discussions around the sought-for balance between liberty and equality, so as to avoid the separation both of liberty and equality and of the domains opposing formal and substantive claims. These must be rather regarded in their correlated conditions, required for an effective, democratic exercise of citizens’ private and public autonomy, as Habermas suggested. The article shows that the question of equality of condition cannot avoid the difficult questions raised in the so-called “difference” debate and attempts to go “beyond equality and difference” or to “reconstruct” an ideal of equal citizenship in a democracy must address considerations raised in the discussions concerning equality of condition and respect.
Seq4SNPs: new software for retrieval of multiple, accurately annotated DNA sequences, ready formatted for SNP assay design
Helen I Field, Serena A Scollen, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Jonathan Morrison, Alison M Dunning, Douglas F Easton, Paul DP Pharoah
BMC Bioinformatics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-180
Abstract: We created Seq4SNPs, a web-based, walk-away software that can process one to several hundred SNPs given rs numbers as input. It outputs a file of fully annotated sequences formatted for one of three proprietary design softwares: TaqMan's Primer-By-Design FileBuilder, Sequenom's iPLEX or SNPstream's Autoprimer, as well as unannotated fasta sequences. We found genotyping assays to be inhibited by repetitive sequences or the presence of additional variations flanking the SNP under test, and in multiplexes, repetitive sequence flanking one SNP adversely affects multiple assays. Assay design software programs avoid such regions if the input sequences are appropriately annotated, so we used Seq4SNPs to provide suitably annotated input sequences, and improved our genotyping success rate. Adjacent SNPs can also be avoided, by annotating sequences used as input for primer design.The accuracy of annotation by Seq4SNPs is significantly better than manual annotation (P < 1e-5).Using Seq4SNPs to incorporate all annotation for additional SNPs and repetitive elements into sequences, for genotyping assay designer software, minimizes assay failure at the design stage, reducing the cost of genotyping. Seq4SNPs provides a rapid route for replacement of poor test SNP sequences. We routinely use this software for assay sequence preparation.Seq4SNPs is available as a service at http://moya.srl.cam.ac.uk/oncology/bio/s4shome.html webcite and http://moya.srl.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/oncology/srl/ncbi/seq4snp1.pl webcite, currently for human SNPs, but easily extended to include any species in dbSNP.A survey of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and primer design software reveals several packages that align EST or genome sequences to discover SNPs [1-6]. SNP-VISTA visualizes SNPs from aligned genome sequences [7]. Other packages take a chromosome region then use recorded SNP genotypes, and additional information, to reduce the set of SNPs that need genotyping [[8,9] and references therein]. SNP i
Cardiac and Renal Function are Progressively Impaired with Aging in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Type II Diabetic Rats
John Baynes,David B. Murray
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2009, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.2.5.9831
Abstract: This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC (n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27% respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks, without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.
Evaporation Characteristics of Electron Beam Gun Heated Sources
Paul C. Baynes,T. Nagarajan
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 1984, DOI: 10.1155/apec.11.175
Common variants in the ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 and TP53 cancer susceptibility genes are unlikely to increase breast cancer risk
Caroline Baynes, Catherine S Healey, Karen A Pooley, Serena Scollen, Robert N Luben, Deborah J Thompson, Paul DP Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Bruce AJ Ponder, Alison M Dunning, the SEARCH breast cancer study
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1669
Abstract: We have attempted a comprehensive, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)- and haplotype-tagging association study on each of these five genes in up to 4,474 breast cancer cases from the British, East Anglian SEARCH study and 4,560 controls from the EPIC-Norfolk study, using a two-stage study design. Nine tag SNPs were genotyped in ATM, together with five in BRCA1, sixteen in BRCA2, ten in CHEK2 and five in TP53, with the aim of tagging all other known, common variants. SNPs generating the common amino acid substitutions were specifically forced into the tagging set for each gene.No significant breast cancer associations were detected with any individual or combination of tag SNPs.It is unlikely that there are any other common variants in these genes conferring measurably increased risks of breast cancer in our study population.Four of the genes which lie in the DNA damage-recognition and repair pathway, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53, have mutations that are recognised to increase breast cancer susceptibility with moderate to high penetrance. Such mutations are very rare, and most probably of recent origin. A fifth gene, CHEK2, in the same pathway, has a deletion (1100delC) that reaches polymorphic frequencies (>0.01) in some European countries and doubles the risk of breast cancer in female carriers [1]. Together these mutations account for only a small proportion (2% to 5%) of all breast cancer incidences [2,3]. Breast cancer is, however, a common disease and genetic epidemiological data suggest that there is a low-penetrance genetic contribution to most cases [4,5]. It is likely that at least a part of breast cancer aetiology will fit the common disease-common variant hypothesis, which states that patients with a common, complex disease are likely to share some common, low-penetrance alleles that increase their susceptibility to that disease. This raises the question of whether such common, polymorphic susceptibility alleles exist within these five genes in addition t
CYP2D6 gene variants: association with breast cancer specific survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients from the United Kingdom treated with adjuvant tamoxifen
Jean E Abraham, Mel J Maranian, Kristy E Driver, Radka Platte, Bolot Kalmyrzaev, Caroline Baynes, Craig Luccarini, Mitul Shah, Susan Ingle, David Greenberg, Helena M Earl, Alison M Dunning, Paul DP Pharoah, Carlos Caldas
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2629
Abstract: This was a population based case-cohort study. We genotyped known functional variants (n = 7; minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.01) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 5; MAF > 0.05) tagging all known common variants (tagSNPs), in CYP2D6 in 6640 DNA samples from patients with invasive breast cancer from SEARCH (Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity); 3155 cases had received tamoxifen therapy. There were 312 deaths from breast cancer, in the tamoxifen treated patients, with over 18000 years of cumulative follow-up. The association between genotype and BCSS was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.In tamoxifen treated patients, there was weak evidence that the poor-metaboliser variant, CYP2D6*6 (MAF = 0.01), was associated with decreased BCSS (P = 0.02; HR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.12-3.40). No other variants, including CYP2D6*4 (MAF = 0.20), previously reported to be associated with poorer clinical outcomes, were associated with differences in BCSS, in either the tamoxifen or non-tamoxifen groups.CYP2D6*6 may affect BCSS in tamoxifen-treated patients. However, the absence of an association with survival in more frequent variants, including CYP2D6*4, questions the validity of the reported association between CYP2D6 genotype and treatment response in breast cancer. Until larger, prospective studies confirming any associations are available, routine CYP2D6 genetic testing should not be used in the clinical setting.Tamoxifen has been the standard treatment for oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer for more than three decades. Indications for its use [1] include: metastatic disease in women (pre- and post-menopausal) and men; adjuvant therapy in pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer (lymph node positive and negative); preventative therapy in women at high risk of breast cancer; ductal carcinoma in situ post-resection; and for the prevention of contra-lateral breast cancer. There are proven benefits ass
The Metal Chelators, Trientine and Citrate, Inhibit the Development of Cardiac Pathology in the Zucker Diabetic Rat
John W. Baynes,David B. Murray
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/696378
Abstract: Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of dietary supplementation with the metal chelators, trientine or citric acid, in preventing the development of cardiomyopathy in the Zucker diabetic rat. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that dietary chelators would attenuate metal-catalyzed oxidative stress and damage in tissues and protect against pathological changes in ventricular structure and function in type II diabetes. Methods. Animals (10 weeks old) included lean control (LC, fa/
BPM, Agile, and Virtualization Combine to Create Effective Solutions
Steve Kruba,Steven Baynes,Robert Hyer
International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: The rate of change in business and government is accelerating. A number of techniques for addressing that change have emerged independently to provide for automated solutions in this environment. This paper will examine three of the most popular of these technologies— business process management, the agile software development movement, and infrastructure virtualization— to expose the commonalities in these approaches and how, when used together, their combined effect results in rapidly deployed, more successful solutions.
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