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aim of this study was to analyze the NP/OP S.
pneumoniae serotype distribution and potential vaccine coverage in Costa
Rican children with Otitis Media (OM) before the introduction of PCV-7 in the National Immunization Program
(NIP). Methods: Between 2002 and
2006, NP and OP samples were obtained from 641 children from 6 to 79 months of
age, at the time of OM diagnosis. S.
pneumoniae serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility were performed. Results: 386 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. The most common S. pneumoniae serotypes (ST) were: ST
6B, ST 14, ST 19F.
Penicillin non-susceptibility was observed among 57% of the isolates obtained
from children < 24 months of age. 15% strains were multidrug resistant. Potential
vaccine coverage was: PCV-7: 60%; PCV-10: 62%; and PCV-13: 76% and against
penicillin non-susceptible and multidrug resistant isolates was: PCV-7; 59% and
83%, respectively; PCV-10: 60% and 85%, respectively and PCV-13: 74% and 96%,
respectively. Conclusions: S. pneumoniae was isolated from the NP
and/or OP in the majority (59%) of studied children with OM. At a statistical
significant level, only serotype 3 was more frequently isolated among children
>24 months of age. Antibiotic non-susceptibility and MDR were significantly
higher in children <24 months of age. This study demonstrates that PCV-13
offers the highest potential vaccine coverage and serves to assess the impact
of introduction of one of the conjugated vaccines in the NIP in Costa Rica.