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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8209 matches for " Carolina Ciacci "
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Celiac disease: Alternatives to a gluten free diet
Fabiana Zingone,Pietro Capone,Carolina Ciacci
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics , 2010,
Abstract: Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten or related rye and barley proteins. At present, the only available treatment is a strict gluten-exclusion diet. However, recent understanding of the molecular basis for this disorder has improved and enabled the identification of targets for new therapies. This article aims to critically summarize these recent studies.
Butyrate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Intestinal Cells and Crohn's Mucosa through Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Machinery
Ilaria Russo, Alessandro Luciani, Paola De Cicco, Edoardo Troncone, Carolina Ciacci
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032841
Abstract: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia Coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa.
A Novel Chemotaxis Assay in 3-D Collagen Gels by Time-Lapse Microscopy
Angela Vasaturo, Sergio Caserta, Ilaria Russo, Valentina Preziosi, Carolina Ciacci, Stefano Guido
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052251
Abstract: The directional cell response to chemical gradients, referred to as chemotaxis, plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes including development, immune response and tumor cell invasion. Despite such implications, chemotaxis remains a challenging process to study under physiologically-relevant conditions in-vitro, mainly due to difficulties in generating a well characterized and sustained gradient in substrata mimicking the in-vivo environment while allowing dynamic cell imaging. Here, we describe a novel chemotaxis assay in 3D collagen gels, based on a reusable direct-viewing chamber in which a chemoattractant gradient is generated by diffusion through a porous membrane. The diffusion process has been analysed by monitoring the concentration of FITC-labelled dextran through epifluorescence microscopy and by comparing experimental data with theoretical and numerical predictions based on Fick's law. Cell migration towards chemoattractant gradients has been followed by time-lapse microscopy and quantified by cell tracking based on image analysis techniques. The results are expressed in terms of chemotactic index (I) and average cell velocity. The assay has been tested by comparing the migration of human neutrophils in isotropic conditions and in the presence of an Interleukin-8 (IL-8) gradient. In the absence of IL-8 stimulation, 80% of the cells showed a velocity ranging from 0 to 1 μm/min. However, in the presence of an IL-8 gradient, 60% of the cells showed an increase in velocity reaching values between 2 and 7 μm/min. Furthermore, after IL-8 addition, I increased from 0 to 0.25 and 0.25 to 0.5, respectively, for the two donors examined. These data indicate a pronounced directional migration of neutrophils towards the IL-8 gradient in 3D collagen matrix. The chemotaxis assay described here can be adapted to other cell types and may serve as a physiologically relevant method to study the directed locomotion of cells in a 3D environment in response to different chemoattractants.
New Onset of Constipation during Long-Term Physical Inactivity: A Proof-of-Concept Study on the Immobility-Induced Bowel Changes
Paola Iovino, Giuseppe Chiarioni, Giancarlo Bilancio, Massimo Cirillo, Igor B. Mekjavic, Rado Pisot, Carolina Ciacci
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072608
Abstract: Background The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. Aims Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. Methods Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation). Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36), general health (Goldberg’s General Health) and depression mood (Zung scale) questionnaires were administered. Results New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10) of participants (p=0.03). The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively). Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest Conclusions Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.
Life Events and the Onset of Celiac Disease from a Patient’s Perspective
Carolina Ciacci,Monica Siniscalchi,Cristina Bucci,Fabiana Zingone,Ivonne Morra,Paola Iovino
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5093388
Abstract: Stressful events have been investigated in various immune-mediated diseases but not in celiac disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship of stressful events assessed by the standardized interview of Paykel with the diagnosis of celiac disease in comparison to patients, with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease used as the control group. Adults with celiac disease ( n = 186) reported more frequent and more severe life events in the years prior to the diagnosis than control patients ( n = 96) (67.2% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001, mean Paykel score 11.5 vs. 13.4, p = 0.001, respectively). Findings were not significantly different between celiac disease and control patients for the time lapse between the event and the diagnosis (mean 5.5 vs. 5.7 months). Pregnancy was defined as a negative event by 20.3% of celiac women, but never by control women. Findings were confirmed when analyses were repeated in the subgroup of patients of both groups with diagnosis made within one year of onset of symptoms. Data indicate that, before diagnosis, the number of stressful events in celiac disease was more frequent although less severe than in the control group suggesting that life events may favor the clinical appearance of celiac disease or accelerate its diagnosis.
Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification
Anna Sapone, Julio C Bai, Carolina Ciacci, Jernej Dolinsek, Peter HR Green, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Katri Kaukinen, Kamran Rostami, David S Sanders, Michael Schumann, Reiner Ullrich, Danilo Villalta, Umberto Volta, Carlo Catassi, Alessio Fasano
BMC Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-13
Abstract: Wheat, rice and maize are the most widely consumed food grains in the world. Wheat, the most widely grown crop, is immensely diverse, with more than 25,000 different cultivars having been produced by plant breeders worldwide. Much of the world's production of wheat is consumed after it has been processed into bread, other baked goods, pasta and noodles, and, in the Middle East and North Africa, bulgur and couscous. In addition, the wide availability of wheat flour and the functional properties of gluten proteins provide the rationale for their wide use as an ingredient in food processing.Gluten is the main structural protein complex of wheat with equivalent toxic proteins found in other cereals, including rye and barley. The toxic protein fractions of gluten include gliadins and glutenins, with gliadins containing monomeric proteins and glutenins containing aggregated proteins. Possibly the introduction of gluten-containing grains, which occurred about 10,000 years ago with the advent of agriculture, represented an evolutionary challenge that created the conditions for human diseases related to gluten exposure, the best known of which are mediated by the adaptive immune system: wheat allergy (WA) and celiac disease (CD). In both conditions the reaction to gluten is mediated by T-cell activation in the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, in WA it is the cross-linking of immunoglobulin (Ig)E by repeat sequences in gluten peptides (for example, serine-glutamine-glutamine -glutamine-(glutamine-)proline-proline-phenylalanine) that triggers the release of chemical mediators, such as histamine, from basophils and mast cells [1]. In contrast, CD is an autoimmune disorder, as demonstrated by specific serologic autoantibodies, most notably serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA).Besides CD and WA, there are cases of gluten reactions in which neither allergic nor autoimmune mechanisms are involved. These are generally defined as gluten sensi
PROgnosticating COeliac patieNts SUrvivaL: The PROCONSUL Score
Federico Biagi, Annalisa Schiepatti, Georgia Malamut, Alessandra Marchese, Christophe Cellier, Sjoerd F. Bakker, Chris J. J. Mulder, Umberto Volta, Fabiana Zingone, Carolina Ciacci, Anna D’Odorico, Alida Andrealli, Marco Astegiano, Catherine Klersy, Gino R. Corazza
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084163
Abstract: Introduction It has been shown that mortality rates of coeliac patients correlate with age at diagnosis of coeliac disease, diagnostic delay for coeliac disease, pattern of clinical presentation and HLA typing. Our aim was to create a tool that identifies coeliac patients at higher risk of developing complications. Methods To identify predictors of complications in patients with coeliac disease, we organised an observational multicenter case-control study based on a retrospective collection of clinical data. Clinical data from 116 cases (patients with complicated coeliac disease) and 181 controls (coeliac patients without any complications) were collected from seven European centres. For each case, one or two controls, matched to cases according to the year of assessment, gender and age, were selected. Diagnostic delay, pattern of clinical presentation, HLA typing and age at diagnosis were used as predictors. Results Differences between cases and controls were detected for diagnostic delay and classical presentation. Conditional logistic models based on these statistically different predictors allowed the development of a score system. Tertiles analysis showed a relationship between score and risk of developing complications. Discussion A score that shows the risk of a newly diagnosed coeliac patient developing complications was devised for the first time. This will make it possible to set up the follow-up of coeliac patients with great benefits not only for their health but also for management of economic resources. Conclusions We think that our results are very encouraging and represent the first attempt to build a prognostic score for coeliac patients.
Vacinas com marcadores antigênicos contra o vírus da rinotraqueíte infecciosa bovina e o vírus da doen?a de Aujeszky
Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci;Flores, Eduardo Furtado;
Ciência Rural , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84781995000200028
Abstract: vaccination has been widely used to minimize the economic losses caused by bovine herpesvírus type-1 (ibrv) and pseudorabies virus (pr v) infections. the traditional vaccines, however, induce a humoral response that is indistinguishable from that induced by the natural infection. the impossibility of distinction between vaccinated and naturally infected animais has impaired the establishment of control and eradication programs for these diseases. in the last years, the genetic manipulation of infectious agents has allowed the development of mutants that are detective in expression of specific envelope glycoproteins. the strategy consists of deletion of one or more non-essential viral envelope glycoproteins and the use of these mutants as vaccines. by using a serologic test that is specific for the deleted glycoprotein, it is possible to differentiate the vaccinated animais from those that have been naturally infected. the use of these genetically engineered vaccines, also known as marker vaccines, has been the basis for control and eradication programs of aujeszky's disease in several countries and has recently begun to be utilized for ibrv. this article presents a brief review on the molecular and biological basis of the differential vaccines against ibrv and prv and the possible applications of such vaccines in the control of these infections in the near future in brazil.
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders
Carlo Catassi,Julio C. Bai,Bruno Bonaz,Gerd Bouma,Antonio Calabrò,Antonio Carroccio,Gemma Castillejo,Carolina Ciacci,Fernanda Cristofori,Jernej Dolinsek,Ruggiero Francavilla,Luca Elli,Peter Green,Wolfgang Holtmeier,Peter Koehler,Sibylle Koletzko,Christof Meinhold,David Sanders,Michael Schumann,Detlef Schuppan,Reiner Ullrich,Andreas Vécsei,Umberto Volta,Victor Zevallos,Anna Sapone,Alessio Fasano
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5103839
Abstract: Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.
Diagnosis of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs in Brazil caused by porcine circovirus type 2
Ciacci-Zanella, J.R.;Morés, N.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352003000500002
Abstract: this report describes the first preliminary characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) isolates from pigs affected with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in brazil. diseased pigs were examined at necropsy and by histopathology. macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed lesions reported to be typical of pmws, which included, respectively, emaciation, enlargement of lymph nodes, thymus atrophy and interstitial pneumonia, and granulomatous lymphadenitis with syncytial cells, among others. using nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) or imunoperoxidase it was possible to detected dna or antigen of pcv2, respectively. the pcr' s amplified fragment could be differentiated from pcv1 and pcv2 from one another by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. pcv2 dna was detected in 70% (14/20) of samples of pigs with clinical signs and lesions associated with pmws. this study shows that pcv2 is associated with lesions and symptoms indicative of pmws in pigs. it is also shown that the brazilian pcv2 isolates may have variation in their genome.
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