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Hermenéutica o hermética. Oposición y conjunción de dos tradiciones interpretativas
Carmen Fernández Galán,Gonzalo Lizardo Méndez
Caracteres : Estudios Culturales y Críticos de la Esfera Digital , 2012,
Abstract: Reading the world like a book or reading a book like a world are two ways of interpretation that permit the tracing of hermeneutic traditions. In an attempt to achieve the conjuctio oppositorum, we explore the tension between hermetics and hermeneutics that forks in the road of science and literature, whose borders are blurred. The ways of revealing the truth are multiple: analogy, metaphor, archetypes and symbols imply routes of intertextuality for the reader, who in turn completes the interpretation in his own horizon of expectations. In the conjunction, and not in the opposition, between hermeneutics and hermetics, it will be possible to open new spaces for the living and creative interpretation of life and texts.
Parametric Study of Thermodynamics in the Mediterranean Courtyard as a Tool for the Design of Eco-Efficient Buildings
Juan M. Rojas,Carmen Galán-Marín,Enrique D. Fernández-Nieto
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5072381
Abstract: Traditionally, people in the Mediterranean region knew that the temperatures in their courtyards were cooler in summer than outside temperature. This paper provides a quantitative study on the usefulness of Mediterranean courtyards as passive energy saving systems. This work is based on the creation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model developed using the open source Freefem++ language. In this work, first the numerical model is tested using simplified-shape courtyards which have been previously studied both physically under controlled parameters, and mathematically through numerical simulations. We also study the most appropriate depth ratio for a courtyard, based on these simplified shapes, depending on the climate. Secondly, we apply the numerical model in a real geometry, the Monte Málaga hotel. We compare the numerical results with the monitored data of the temperature in the courtyard of the hotel. The numerical model takes into account precomputed solar radiation in the walls of the courtyard, the predominant wind and buoyancy effects.
Frecuencia y tendencia temporal de los defectos congénitos en Asturias: La necesidad de la vigilancia clinicoepidemiológica
Mosquera Tenreiro,Carmen; Ria?o Galán,Isolina; Rodríguez Dehli,Cristina; Fernández Toral,Joaquín; Moro Bayón,Carmen; Rodríguez Fernández,Adela; Suárez Menéndez,M. Etelvina; García López,Enrique; Ariza Hevia,Fernando;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112009000400008
Abstract: objective: congenital defects remain the second cause of perinatal and infant death and the third cause between the second and fifth years of life in asturias. these anomalies generate substantial morbidity. the aim of the present study was to describe the population-based frequency of congenital defects in asturias and their forms of presentation. methods: data from the population-based registry of congenital defects of asturias for 1990-2004 were analyzed. the data related to live births, stillbirths and induced abortions after prenatal diagnosis and are presented as birth prevalence and total prevalence (including induced abortions). results: the total number of births was 103,452 and there were 3,035 cases of congenital defects, representing a total prevalence of 2.9 cases per 100 births and a birth prevalence of 2.5%. these figures showed a tendency to increase throughout the study period. a total of 2,516 (82.9%) cases were live births, 46 (1.5%) were stillbirths and 473 (15.6%) were induced abortions. prenatal diagnosis increased throughout the period. sixtythree percent of total cases showed an isolated defect, 17% a recognized syndrome and the remaining 20% had multiple malformations without a syndromic pattern. the most frequent and severe defects registered were neural tube defects (12.2 per 10,000 births), chromosomal abnormalities (34.4 per 10,000), and cardiac defects (75.2 per 10,000). conclusions: the 15-year experience of the registry of congenital defects of asturias reveals the utility of this type of database to evaluate prenatal screening programs, plan the resources needed in affected pregnant women and infants, and perform epidemiological surveillance of congenital defects in relation to environmental risks, drug exposure and assisted reproduction techniques.
PKR and PP1C Polymorphisms in Alzheimer’s Disease Risk  [PDF]
Ernest Palomer, Gerard ILL-Raga, Marta Tajes, Eva Ramos-Fernández, Mònica Bosch-Morató, Biuse Guivernau, José J. Galán, Jordi Clarimón, Carmen Antúnez, Mercé Boada, Luis M. Real, César Fandos, Francisco J. Mu?oz
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.23031
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are deposits of amyloid ß-peptide (Aß) produced by the cleavage of a transmembrane protein termed Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). The amyloidogenic cleavage of APP is performed by γ-secretase complex and ß-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme in AD that can be activated by different noxious stimuli. Interestingly, some viruses could activate double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which phosphorylates Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). This phosphorylation stops global translation to avoid any synthesis of viral infective proteins, but paradoxically up-regulates BACE1 translation. One of the viral mechanisms to circumvent eIF2α phosphorylation is the recruitment of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), to fully dephosphorylate eIF2α and allow viral protein synthesis. Due to the functional relationship between BACE1, PKR, PP1 and AD we have performed a large (1122 cases and 1191 control individuals) case-control genetic analysis using two biallelic polymorphisms rs2254958 and rs7480390, located within the genes coding for PKR and the catalytic unit A of PP1, respectively. Although a trend to association of the rs2254958 TT genotype with AD risk was found, our results show that neither rs7480390 nor rs2254958 are associated with AD susceptibility.
Frecuencia de los defectos del tubo neural en Asturias: impacto del diagnóstico prenatal
García López,Enrique; Rodríguez Dehli,Cristina; Ariza Hevia,Fernando; Rodríguez Fernández,Adela; Fernández Toral,Joaquín; Ria?o Galán,Isolina; Mosquera Tenreiro,Carmen;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112009000600004
Abstract: objective: to describe the frequency and prevalence trend for neural tube defects (ntd) (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) in asturias (spain), as well as the impact of prenatal diagnosis programs. methods: all cases of ntd in births and induced abortions were studied, using data from the registry of congenital defects of asturias for 1990-2004. total and birth prevalence rates were calculated. results: the prevalence of ntd for 1990-2004 was 12.2 per 10,000 births (5.9 anencephaly, 5.0 spina bifida and 1.3 encephalocele) and showed a slightly decreasing trend due to a significant decline in spina bifida prevalence. the prevalence of anencephaly and encephalocele remained stable. the percentage of induced abortions after prenatal diagnosis among all ntd was 88% (anencephaly 96.7%, spina bifida 80% and encephalocele 84.6%), leading to a very low birth prevalence (1.4 per 10,000) for the entire period. conclusions: the total prevalence of spina bifida has decreased in the last 15 years in asturias. secondary prevention through prenatal diagnosis and interruption of affected pregnancies have resulted in a marked decrease in ntd at birth. the recommendation of periconceptional use of folic acid seems not to have achieved the desired effect.
Activation of PKR Causes Amyloid ?-Peptide Accumulation via De-Repression of BACE1 Expression
Gerard ILL-Raga, Ernest Palomer, Matthew A. Wozniak, Eva Ramos-Fernández, Mònica Bosch-Morató, Marta Tajes, Francesc X. Guix, José J. Galán, Jordi Clarimón, Carmen Antúnez, Luis M. Real, Mercé Boada, Ruth F. Itzhaki, César Fandos, Francisco J. Mu?oz
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021456
Abstract: BACE1 is a key enzyme involved in the production of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Normally, its expression is constitutively inhibited due to the presence of the 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) in the BACE1 promoter. BACE1 expression is activated by phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2-alpha, which reverses the inhibitory effect exerted by BACE1 5′UTR. There are four kinases associated with different types of stress that could phosphorylate eIF2-alpha. Here we focus on the double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR). PKR is activated during viral infection, including that of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a virus suggested to be implicated in the development of AD, acting when present in brains of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene. HSV1 is a dsDNA virus but it has genes on both strands of the genome, and from these genes complementary RNA molecules are transcribed. These could activate BACE1 expression by the PKR pathway. Here we demonstrate in HSV1-infected neuroblastoma cells, and in peripheral nervous tissue from HSV1-infected mice, that HSV1 activates PKR. Cloning BACE1 5′UTR upstream of a luciferase (luc) gene confirmed its inhibitory effect, which can be prevented by salubrinal, an inhibitor of the eIF2-alpha phosphatase PP1c. Treatment with the dsRNA analog poly (I:C) mimicked the stimulatory effect exerted by salubrinal over BACE1 translation in the 5′UTR-luc construct and increased A? production in HEK-APPsw cells. Summarizing, our data suggest that PKR activated in brain by HSV1 could play an important role in the development of AD.
Dos estrategias ganadoras para la opción Banxico
Bego?a Fernández,Manuel Galán,Patricia Saavedra
Economía Mexicana , 2003,
Abstract: Durante el período de agosto de 1996 a junio de 2001, el Banco de México instrumentó un mecanismo de intervención en el mercado cambiario nacional, que le permitió incrementar sus reservas internacionales por un monto mayor a los 16,000 millones de dólares. El mecanismo de acumulación se basó en el dise o de un contrato opcional, cuyas características contractuales no se encontraban en las opciones exóticas existentes en el mercado. En este artículo se presenta un análisis de dicho instrumento durante su período de vigencia basado en los resultados obtenidos en Fernández y Saavedra (2003) y Galán, et ál. (1996), en los que se presentan dos reglas de ejercicio: una basada en el principio de la programación dinámica y el teorema de Paro óptimo y otra en un criterio heurístico. El estudio muestra que bajo la hipótesis de que el tipo de cambio en cada tiempo tiene una distribución log-normal, las instituciones crediticias adquirieron el contrato opcional a un precio por debajo del valor estimado. Sin embargo, su política de ejercicio no fue óptima, pues de haber utilizado alguna de las reglas de ejercicio propuestas habrían obtenido una ganancia adicional.
Uveítis anterior y artritis idiopática juvenil Anterior uveitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis
JI Vela,A Galán,E Fernández,M Romera
Archivos de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Oftalmología , 2003,
Abstract: Objetivo: La uveítis anterior es una de las manifestaciones extraarticulares más importantes de la artritis idiopática juvenil (AIJ). El objetivo de este estudio ha sido describir la frecuencia de uveítis, de complicaciones y cirugías requeridas, corroborar factores de riesgo y analizar las características de la uveítis en estos pacientes. Métodos: Se analizaron los pacientes que presentaron episodios de uveítis anterior (Tyndall + o precipitados endoteliales recientes) entre los 132 pacientes diagnosticados de AIJ en nuestro hospital en los últimos 15 a os. Resultados: 26 pacientes (43 ojos) presentaron uveítis (incidencia acumulada: 19%). Todos ellos presentaban un patrón pauciarticular. Los pacientes recibieron tratamiento corticoideo tópico durante 19,2 meses de media, observándose un promedio de 4,5 episodios por paciente. Aquellos que iniciaron la actividad inflamatoria previamente o en el primer a o tras el diagnóstico de la artritis presentaron una mayor duración de tratamiento (295 frente a 206 meses) y más episodios (73 frente a 44) que los que la iniciaron a partir del primer a o. Aparecieron complicaciones (catarata, queratopatía en banda, hipertensión ocular, edema macular) en 12 pacientes y en 12 ojos (27,9% de los ojos afectados). 10 ojos requirieron cirugía. Conclusiones: La uveítis es una causa frecuente de morbilidad en la AIJ. El sexo femenino, el patrón pauciarticular, la presencia de anticuerpos antinucleares y la aparición precoz de uveítis incrementan el riego de desarrollar inflamación ocular. Es necesario realizar controles oftalmológicos frecuentes con lámpara de hendidura en los pacientes con mayor riesgo. Purpose: Anterior uveitis is one of the most important extraarticular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of uveitis, complications and ocular surgical procedures, to corroborate risk factors for the development of uveitis and to analyze its evolutive characteristics. Methods: Retrospective review of 132 children diagnosed with JIA in our hospital from 1985 to 2000. Patients presenting anterior uveitis (Tyndall + or recent keratic precipitates) were studied. Results: Uveitis was detected in 26 of 132 children (19%). All of them presented pauciarticular JIA. The patients received corticosteroid therapy for a mean time of 19.2 months, developing a mean of 4.5 episodes of uveitis. Patients diagnosed with uveitis before or within 1 year from the onset of arthritis required longer treatment (295 months versus 206) and suffered more episodes (73 versus 44) than
Las pizarras de la faja piritica Ibérica (zona sur-Portuguesa): geología, mineralogía y aplicaciones industriales
Fernández-Caliani, J. C.,Galán, E.
Estudios Geologicos , 1991, DOI: 10.3989/egeol.91475-6425
Abstract: The geochemical, mineralogical and petrographical features of slates from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) are studied. On the basis of these data, the origin and metamorphic conditions undergone by these materials are discussed. Finally, the infiuence of mineralogical, textural and microstructural factors on their use as industrial rocks (roofing slates) is estimated. Se describen las características geoquímicas, mineralógicas y petrográficas de los materiales pizarrosos de un sector de la Faja Pirítica y, en base a estos datos, se discuten sus condiciones de formación y evolución durante el metamorfismo. Finalmente, se analiza la incidencia de la mineralogía y de los factores texturales y microestructurales en la calidad de las pizarras como rocas industriales.
Relación entre recién nacidos de alto riesgo y sus padres, algunas reflexiones psicodinámicas.
Ramón Corominas,Carmen Bayo Fernández
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 1985,
Abstract: Se analizan las interrelaciones entre recién nacidos de alto riesgo y sus padres, así como las repercusiones que el ingreso temprano condiciona en la asunción de los papeles de los padres. Se destaca la labor del profesional en la doble vertiente de la actuación sobre el ni o y sobre la pareja. Se constata la importancia de una actuación a este nivel del profesional en salud mental como transmisor de información y estimulador de las figuras paternas en la asunción de sus roles y preventivamente sobre el futuro psicológico del ni o.
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