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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461883 matches for " Carmel A. Levitan "
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Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations
Carmel A. Levitan, Jiana Ren, Andy T. Woods, Sanne Boesveldt, Jason S. Chan, Kirsten J. McKenzie, Michael Dodson, Jai A. Levin, Christine X. R. Leong, Jasper J. F. van den Bosch
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101651
Abstract: Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.
The Relationship between Mental Health Components and Locus of Control in Youth  [PDF]
Mahnaz Shojaee, Carmel French
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58107
Abstract:

Using Ryff’s positive psychological theory as a conceptual framework, this research was focused on mental health or well-being to explore the degree to which mental health can be predicted by personality traits and demographic factors in Nova Scotian youth and young adults. This theory covered all critical features of well-being by taking benefits from different developmental, personality and clinical theories. Employing Ryff’s inclusive theory that covered six dimensions including purpose in life, self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, and personal growth, the researcher studied the relationship between mental health components and the locus of control. Participants: One hundred and seventy-two students of Mount Saint Vincent University were randomly selected and participated in this study. Measures: All participants completed three measures, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Method: Quantitative methods such as bivariate correlation, ANOVA and hierarchical linear regression were used to explain the relationships between variables based on the research hypotheses. Results: The statistical analysis of data revealed that there was a positive and linear association between the internal locus of control and all six well-being components. Findings from the current research demonstrated that individuals who have an internal tendency in their locus of control are in higher levels of mental health in compression with individuals with external locus of control. Using hierarchical linear regression revealed that locus of control, gender, citizenship status, marital status can predict 41% of the variance in participants’ mental health.

Lyapunov vs. Geometrical Stability Analysis of the Kepler and the Restricted Three Body Problem
A. Yahalom,J. Levitan,M. Lewkowicz,L. Horwitz
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In this letter we show that although the application of standard Lyapunov analysis predicts that completely integrable Kepler motion is unstable, the geometrical analysis of Horwitz et al [1] predicts the observed stability. This seems to us to provide evidence for both the incompleteness of the standard Lyapunov analysis and the strength of the geometrical analysis. Moreover, we apply this approach to the three body problem in which the third body is restricted to move on a circle of large radius which induces an adiabatic time dependent potential on the second body. This causes the second body to move in a very interesting and intricate but periodic trajectory; however, the standard Lyapunov analysis, as well as methods based on the parametric variation of curvature associated with the Jacobi metric, incorrectly predict chaotic behavior. The geometric approach predicts the correct stable motion in this case as well.
Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus
Swadhin Taneja,Benjamin A. Levitan,Andrew D. Rutenberg
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.012704
Abstract: We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advances in Microbial Physiology 24, 301 (1983); Research in Microbiology 141, 529 (1990)]. We show that the measured anisotropic elasticity of the PG sacculus can lead to stable circumferential propagation of small gaps in the sacculus. This is consistent with the recent observation of circumferential propagation of PG-associated MreB patches in rod-shaped bacteria. We also find a bistable regime of both circumferential and axial gap propagation, which agrees with behavior reported in cytoskeletal mutants of B. subtilis. We conclude that the elastic anisotropies of a bacterial sacculus, as characterised experimentally, may be relevant for maintaining rod-shaped bacterial growth.
An Underlying Geometrical Manifold for Hamiltonian Mechanics
L. P. Horwitz,A. Yahalom,J. Levitan,M. Lewkowicz
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We show that there exists an underlying manifold with a conformal metric and compatible connection form, and a metric type Hamiltonian (which we call the geometrical picture) that can be put into correspondence with the usual Hamilton-Lagrange mechanics. The requirement of dynamical equivalence of the two types of Hamiltonians, that the momenta generated by the two pictures be equal for all times, is sufficient to determine an expansion of the conformal factor, defined on the geometrical coordinate representation, in its domain of analyticity with coefficients to all orders determined by functions of the potential of the Hamilton-Lagrange picture, defined on the Hamilton-Lagrange coordinate representation, and its derivatives. Conversely, if the conformal function is known, the potential of a Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be determined in a similar way. We show that arbitrary local variations of the orbits in the Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be generated by variations along geodesics in the geometrical picture and establish a correspondence which provides a basis for understanding how the instability in the geometrical picture is manifested in the instability of the original Hamiltonian motion.
The Social Construction of Fishing, 1949
Carmel Finley
Ecology and Society , 2009,
Abstract: The theoretical construction known as maximum sustained yield (MSY) exists in three realms: as science, as policy, and as a legal concept. Despite substantial criticism by scientists and economists, MSY remains at the heart of fisheries science and fisheries management. This paper suggests that its institutional resilience springs more from its policy and legal roles than from its scientific strength. Maximum sustained yield was adopted as the goal of American fisheries policy in 1949. Between 1949 and 1955, the State Department pushed for its adoption internationally. In this paper, I first look briefly at the relationship between fishing and foreign policy goals during this period. Second, I look at how fishing was understood during 1949, when the American High Seas Fishing Policy was adopted. Third, I look at the actions of the 1955 International Technical Conference on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the Sea and how American actions shaped the development of fisheries science and the modern fishery management process.
Hilary John Deacon: Archaeologist (1936–2010)
Carmel Schrire
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i11/12.466
Abstract:
The barbers of the city of Valencia during the 15th century through the books of criminal justice
Ferragud, Carmel
Anuario de Estudios Medievales , 2011,
Abstract: During the 15th century, the city of Valencia increased considerably in population thanks to a strong immigration. The opportunities that the capital of the kingdom offered were numberless and many medical assistants saw a market that could satisfy their interests, in a time where medicine and its practitioners were considered indispensable. At the same time, the training as a barber must have become an incentive and a way for the social integration. However, the permanent increase of barbers caused diffi culties in integrating themselves in the labour market. That turned into hatred and confrontations with the economical and professional bases, in order to obtain a place in the competitive urban market. A stage where health and illness had become a merchandise, and medicine a good way of earning a living and promoting oneself socially. [ca] Durant el segle XV, la ciutat de València augmentà considerablement la seua població gràcies a una forta immigració. Les oportunitats que oferia la capital del regne eren innombrables i molts practicants de la medicina veieren un mercat que podia satisfer els seus interessos, en un temps on la medicina i els seus practicants eren considerats imprescindibles. Al mateix temps, la formació com a barber degué convertirse en un al·licient i via per a la integració social. Tanmateix, l’augment permanent de barbers va difi cultar la seua integració en el mercat laboral i això es traduí en odis i enfrontaments amb una base econòmica i professional, per tal d’aconseguir guanyar un lloc en el competitiu mercat urbà. Un escenari on la salut i la malaltia havien esdevingut una mercaderia més, i la medicina una bona forma de guanyar-se la vida i promocionarse socialment.
Trajectories of health care service utilization and differences in patient characteristics among adults with specific chronic pain: analysis of health plan member claims
Ruetsch C, Tkacz J, Kardel PG, Howe A, Pai H, Levitan B
Journal of Pain Research , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S38301
Abstract: ajectories of health care service utilization and differences in patient characteristics among adults with specific chronic pain: analysis of health plan member claims Original Research (635) Total Article Views Authors: Ruetsch C, Tkacz J, Kardel PG, Howe A, Pai H, Levitan B Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 137 - 149 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S38301 Received: 19 September 2012 Accepted: 21 November 2012 Published: 21 February 2013 Charles Ruetsch,1 Joseph Tkacz,1 Peter G Kardel,1 Andrew Howe,2 Helen Pai,2 Bennett Levitan3 1Health Analytics, LLC, Columbia, Maryland, 2Janssen Research & Development, Raritan, New Jersey, 3Janssen Research & Development, Titusville, New Jersey, USA Introduction: The lack of consistency surrounding the diagnosis of chronic non-cancer pain, treatment approaches, and patient management suggests the need for further research to better characterize the chronic non-cancer pain population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of health care service utilization of chronic non-cancer pain patients and describe the characteristic differences between trajectory groups. Patients and methods: This study utilized the MarketScan claims databases. A total of 71,392 patients diagnosed with either low back pain or osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2009 served as the study sample. Each subject's claims data were divided into three time periods around an initial diagnosis date: pre-period, post-Year 1, and post-Year 2. Subjects were categorized as either high (H) or low (L) cost at each post period, resulting in the creation of four trajectory groups based on the post-Year 1 and 2 cost pattern: H-H, H-L, L-H, and L-L. Multivariate statistical tests were used to predict and discriminate between trajectory group memberships. Results: The H-H, L-H, and H-L groups each utilized significantly greater pre-period high-cost venue services, post-Year 1 outpatient services, and post-Year 1 opioids compared to the L-L group (P <0.001). Additionally, the H-H and L-H groups displayed elevated Charlson comorbidity index scores compared with the L-L group (P <0.001), with each showing increased odds of having both opioid dependence and cardiovascular disease diagnoses (P <0.01). Conclusion: This study identified patient characteristics among chronic pain patients that discriminated between different levels of post-index high-cost venue service utilization and trajectories of change in the same. With implications for managed care program implementation and resource management, this study highlights results from a developed algorithm that employed a variety of accessible data elements to effectively discriminate between patients based on their pattern of high-cost venue service utilization over time.
A model of food reward learning with dynamic reward exposure
Ross A. Hammond,Joseph T. Ornstein,Lesley K. Fellows,Laurette Dubé,Robert Levitan,Alain Dagher
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2012.00082
Abstract: The process of conditioning via reward learning is highly relevant to the study of food choice and obesity. Learning is itself shaped by environmental exposure, with the potential for such exposures to vary substantially across individuals and across place and time. In this paper, we use computational techniques to extend a well-validated standard model of reward learning, introducing both substantial heterogeneity and dynamic reward exposures. We then apply the extended model to a food choice context. The model produces a variety of individual behaviors and population-level patterns which are not evident from the traditional formulation, but which offer potential insights for understanding food reward learning and obesity. These include a “lock-in” effect, through which early exposure can strongly shape later reward valuation. We discuss potential implications of our results for the study and prevention of obesity, for the reward learning field, and for future experimental and computational work.
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