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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 694 matches for " Carlota Monroy "
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Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy Carlota,Bustamante Dulce María,Rodas Antonieta,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy Carlota,Rodas Antonieta,Mejía Mildred,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: A five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of Guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), 2,344 were Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859, and only 109 were T. nitida Usinger 1939. The Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. Their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in T. nitida(13.8%). However there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). T. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for R. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). The sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. More males than females were found inside houses for T. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and T. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for R. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. Sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of T. dimidiata in different populations. T. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but R. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce María;Rodas, Antonieta;Rosales, Regina;Mejía, Mildred;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000100006
Abstract: triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. compared to previous information, the distribution of t. nitida in guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. fourteen percent of the intradomestic t. nitida were infected with trypanosoma cruzi. the species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (t. dimidiata and rhodnius prolixus). the domestic and peridomestic presence of t. nitida in guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. t. nitida appears to have a low importance as chagas disease vector in guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. however, it clearly has potential to become a chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of t. nitida following the control programs in guatemala. morphometric analysis of 47 t. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of t. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy, Carlota;Rodas, Antonieta;Mejía, Mildred;Rosales, Regina;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000300003
Abstract: a five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were triatoma dimidiata (latreille, 1811), 2,344 were rhodnius prolixus stal 1859, and only 109 were t. nitida usinger 1939. the chagas disease parasite, trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in t. nitida(13.8%). however there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). t. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for r. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). the sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. more males than females were found inside houses for t. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and t. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for r. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of t. dimidiata in different populations. t. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but r. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala
Marroquín M,Ricardo; Bor A,Silvia; Monroy E,M.Carlota;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: a population of 216 specimens of stenocereus eichlamii (cactaceae,subfamily cereoideae) was surveyed for triatoma ryckmani (vector of chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in guatemala. out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of t.ryckmani .in comparison with other areas of guatemala,t.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).the insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of s.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (x2 =26.0,p<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).they were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.a considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.to determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.this is the first report on t.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. rev. biol. trop. 52(4):931-936.epub 2005 jun 24.
A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidae)from Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae)in the semiarid region of Guatemala
Ricardo Marroquín M,Silvia Bor A,M.Carlota Monroy E
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease)in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3).The insects were mainly found (52.4%)in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 =26.0,P<0.00001),followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%).They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground.A considerable proportion (75.7%)had no aparent blood in their digestive systems.To determine the presence of flagellates,43 of the bugs were dissected,but none were found.This is the first report on T.ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4):931-936.Epub 2005 Jun 24. En Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae),44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3).Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X 2=26.0,p<0.00001),el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%)y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%). El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie).Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.
Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize
Lori Stevens ,M. Carlota Monroy,Antonieta Guadalupe Rodas,Patricia L. Dorn
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003047
Abstract: Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.
Vector control intervention towards interruption of transmission of Chagas disease by Rhodnius prolixus, main vector in Guatemala
Hashimoto, Ken;álvarez, Hugo;Nakagawa, Jun;Juarez, Jaime;Monroy, Carlota;Cordón-Rosales, Celia;Gil, Enrique;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000700007
Abstract: in guatemala, the ministry of health (moh) began a vector control project with japanese cooperation in 2000 to reduce the risk of chagas disease infection. rhodnius prolixus is one of the principal vectors and is targeted for elimination. the control method consisted of extensive residual insecticide spraying campaigns, followed by community-based surveillance with selective respraying. interventions in nine endemic departments identified 317 villages with r. prolixus of 4,417 villages surveyed. two cycles of residual insecticide spraying covered over 98% of the houses in the identified villages. fourteen villages reinfestated were all resprayed. between 2000-2003 and 2008, the number of infested villages decreased from 317 to two and the house infestation rate reduced from 0.86% to 0.0036%. seroprevalence rates in 2004-2005, when compared with an earlier study in 1998, showed a significant decline from 5.3% to 1.3% among schoolchildren in endemic areas. the total operational cost was us$ 921,815, where the cost ratio between preparatory, attack and surveillance phases was approximately 2:12:1. in 2008, guatemala was certified for interruption of chagas disease transmission by r. prolixus. what facilitated the process was existing knowledge in vector control and notable commitment by the moh, as well as political, managerial and technical support by external stakeholders.
The number of families of Triatoma dimidiata in a Guatemalan house
Melgar, Sergio;Chávez, Juan José;Landaverde, Patricia;Herrera, Franklin;Rodas, Antonieta;Enríquez, Eunice;Dorn, Patricia;Monroy, Carlota;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762007005000001
Abstract: triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of chagas disease in guatemala. to help understand the biology and population dynamics of the insect, we estimated the number of full sibling families living in one house. forty one families with an average size of 2.17 individuals were detected using random amplification of polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction genetic markers. this result suggests high levels of migration of the vector, polyandry, and a significant capability for spreading the disease.
House improvements and community participation in the control of Triatoma dimidiata re-infestation in Jutiapa, Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce Maria;Pineda, Sandy;Rodas, Antonieta;Castro, Xochitl;Ayala, Virgilio;Qui?ónes, Javier;Moguel, Bárbara;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001300016
Abstract: the deterioration or absence of plaster walls in houses and poor hygienic conditions are the most important risk factors for indoor triatoma dimidiata infestation in guatemala. a cross-disciplinary study was conducted addressing t. dimidiata infestation, household hygiene, and housing construction. the study focused on local materials and cultural aspects (including gender roles) that could lead to long-term improvements in wall construction. a new plaster mix for walls was developed on the basis of laboratory studies on construction materials recommended by local villagers. four villages with persistent (post-spraying) t. dimidiata infestation were studied. in two villages, an ecosystem approach was implemented, and the homeowners conducted wall improvements and household sanitation with the support of the interdisciplinary team (the ecosystem intervention). in the other two villages, a vector control approach based on insecticide spraying was adopted (traditional intervention). both interventions were associated with a reduction in t. dimidiata infestation, but only the ecosystem approach produced important housing improvements (sanitation and wall construction) capable of preventing t. dimidiata re-infestation in the long term.
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