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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5459 matches for " Carla Letizia Busceti "
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Lack or Inhibition of Dopaminergic Stimulation Induces a Development Increase of Striatal Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Positive Interneurons
Carla Letizia Busceti, Domenico Bucci, Gemma Molinaro, Paola Di Pietro, Luca Zangrandi, Roberto Gradini, Rosario Moratalla, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Francesco Fornai
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044025
Abstract: We examined the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in regulating the number of intrinsic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) striatal neurons using mice at postnatal day (PND) 4 to 8, a period that corresponds to the developmental peak in the number of these neurons. We adopted the strategy of depleting endogenous DA by a 2-day treatment with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMpT, 150 mg/kg, i.p.). This treatment markedly increased the number of striatal TH+ neurons, assessed by stereological counting, and the increase was highly correlated to the extent of DA loss. Interestingly, TH+ neurons were found closer to the clusters of DA fibers after DA depletion, indicating that the concentration gradient of extracellular DA critically regulates the distribution of striatal TH+ neurons. A single i.p. injection of the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.1 mg/kg), the D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), or the D4 receptor antagonist, L-745,870 (5 mg/kg) in mice at PND4 also increased the number of TH+ neurons after 4 days. Treatment with the D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 (10 mg/kg) or with the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg) did not change the number of TH+ neurons. At least the effects of SCH23390 were prevented by a combined treatment with SKF38393. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that striatal TH+ neurons expressed D2 and D4 receptors, but not D1 receptors. Moreover, treatment with the α4β2 receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) (3.2 mg/kg) also increased the number of TH+ neurons. The evidence that DHβE mimicked the action of SCH23390 in increasing the number of TH+ neurons supports the hypothesis that activation of D1 receptors controls the number of striatal TH+ neurons by enhancing the release of acetylcholine. These data demonstrate for the first time that endogenous DA negatively regulates the number of striatal TH+ neurons by direct and indirect mechanisms mediated by multiple DA receptor subtypes.
Membrane Lipidome Reorganization Correlates with the Fate of Neuroblastoma Cells Supplemented with Fatty Acids
Andrea Bolognesi, Alexandros Chatgilialoglu, Letizia Polito, Carla Ferreri
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055537
Abstract: Palmitic acid is known to be apoptotic for nervous cells but no data are available on membrane lipidome transformations occurring during its supplementation, although membrane lipids are clearly involved in the apoptotic signaling cascade. NB100 neuroblastoma cells were supplemented with palmitic acid and membrane fatty acids were isolated, derivatized and analysed by gas chromatography at defined time intervals. Parallely, cell viability, morphology, apoptosis, cPLA2 and caspase activations were checked. Interestingly, under 150 μM supplementation the incorporation of palmitic acid was accompanied by the specific release of arachidonic acid. This event was timely correlated with cPLA2 and caspases activations, and the time window of 60 minutes was envisaged for crucial membrane lipidome changes. The simultaneous addition of 50 μM oleic, 50 μM arachidonic and 150 μM palmitic acids to the cell cultures influenced membrane changes with suppression of caspase activation and maintenance of cell viability. These results highlight the role of the membrane asset with fatty acid remodeling and suggest the potential of lipid-based strategies for influencing cell response and fate in human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders or tumours.
Activation of mGlu3 Receptors Stimulates the Production of GDNF in Striatal Neurons
Giuseppe Battaglia, Gemma Molinaro, Barbara Riozzi, Marianna Storto, Carla L. Busceti, Paola Spinsanti, Domenico Bucci, Valentina Di Liberto, Giuseppina Mudò, Corrado Corti, Mauro Corsi, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Natale Belluardo, Valeria Bruno
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006591
Abstract: Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors have been considered potential targets for the therapy of experimental parkinsonism. One hypothetical advantage associated with the use of mGlu receptor ligands is the lack of the adverse effects typically induced by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, such as sedation, ataxia, and severe learning impairment. Low doses of the mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY379268 (0.25–3 mg/kg, i.p.) increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA and protein levels in the mouse brain, as assessed by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. This increase was prominent in the striatum, but was also observed in the cerebral cortex. GDNF mRNA levels peaked at 3 h and declined afterwards, whereas GDNF protein levels progressively increased from 24 to 72 h following LY379268 injection. The action of LY379268 was abrogated by the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and was lost in mGlu3 receptor knockout mice, but not in mGlu2 receptor knockout mice. In pure cultures of striatal neurons, the increase in GDNF induced by LY379268 required the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathways, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors of the two pathways. Both in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that neurons were the only source of GDNF in response to mGlu3 receptor activation. Remarkably, acute or repeated injections of LY379268 at doses that enhanced striatal GDNF levels (0.25 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were highly protective against nigro-striatal damage induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyri?dinein mice, as assessed by stereological counting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. We speculate that selective mGlu3 receptor agonists or enhancers are potential candidates as neuroprotective agents in Parkinson's disease, and their use might circumvent the limitations associated with the administration of exogenous GDNF.
Induction of the Wnt Antagonist Dickkopf-1 Is Involved in Stress-Induced Hippocampal Damage
Francesco Matrisciano,Carla L. Busceti,Domenico Bucci,Rosamaria Orlando,Alessandra Caruso,Gemma Molinaro,Irene Cappuccio,Barbara Riozzi,Roberto Gradini,Marta Motolese,Filippo Caraci,Agata Copani,Sergio Scaccianoce,Daniela Melchiorri,Valeria Bruno,Giuseppe Battaglia,Ferdinando Nicoletti
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016447
Abstract: The identification of mechanisms that mediate stress-induced hippocampal damage may shed new light into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We focused on the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, involved in neurodegeneration. Mice exposed to mild restraint stress showed increased hippocampal levels of Dkk-1 and reduced expression of β-catenin, an intracellular protein positively regulated by the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In adrenalectomized mice, Dkk-1 was induced by corticosterone injection, but not by exposure to stress. Corticosterone also induced Dkk-1 in mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and, at least in the latter model, the action of corticosterone was reversed by the type-2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. To examine whether induction of Dkk-1 was causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage, we used doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a defective induction of Dkk-1. As compared to control mice, doubleridge mice showed a paradoxical increase in basal hippocampal Dkk-1 levels, but no Dkk-1 induction in response to stress. In contrast, stress reduced Dkk-1 levels in doubleridge mice. In control mice, chronic stress induced a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with neuronal loss and dendritic atrophy in the CA1 region, and a reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Doubleridge mice were resistant to the detrimental effect of chronic stress and, instead, responded to stress with increases in dendritic arborisation and neurogenesis. Thus, the outcome of chronic stress was tightly related to changes in Dkk-1 expression in the hippocampus. These data indicate that induction of Dkk-1 is causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage and provide the first evidence that Dkk-1 expression is regulated by corticosteroids in the central nervous system. Drugs that rescue the canonical Wnt pathway may attenuate hippocampal damage in major depression and other stress-related disorders.
Scuola, infanzie e culture in Quebec. Le politiche educative interculturali dal paradigma culturalista al paradigma civico Schools childhood and culture in Quebec. Intercultural Educational policies from the cultural to the civic paradigm
Letizia Caronia
Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica , 2009,
Abstract: Questo articolo propone un’analisi storica e una riflessione critica sui modi con cui il Quebec ha affrontato e costantemente riaffronta il problema della scuola pubblica in una società storicamente multiculturale, multietnica e plurilingue. In particolare, la riflessione riguarda il piano normativo e legislativo e le politiche scolastiche via via elaborate, per rispondere alla sfida di pensare e costruire una scuola pubblica capace di costruire una “infanzia quebecchese”. Una lettura del’curricolo ideale’ - si dirà - ci dice poco sulla ‘realtà’ educativa di un paese. Eppure, in Quebec come altrove, le politiche scolastiche costituiscono i segnali pubblici del modo con cui un paese – rappresentando pubblicamente e ufficialmente la sua scuola - rappresenta se stesso, i propri valori, le proprie concezioni di ‘infanzia’. Dopo un breve quadro storico inteso a tracciare l’origine multiculturale del Quebec (come di tutti gli stati nordamericani, par.1), saranno presi in esame la legge 101 (1977) che sancisce il francese come lingua ufficiale di insegnamento e il dibattito sempre vivo e lacerante che ha accompagnato questa legge e le sue successive modifiche (parr. 2-4.) In secondo luogo, saranno presi in esame il recente processo di laicizzazione della scuola quebecchese sancito dalla legge 118 (giugno 2000) e le profonde implicazioni culturali, politiche e identitarie di tale processo (parr. 5-8.) In un paese che storicamente ha fatto un uso a carattere esplicitamente identitario del riferi-mento alle religioni dei due gruppi maggioritari, che ha costruito su esso la propria organizzazione sociale, le identità dei gruppi e i loro rapporti di forza, la deconfessionalizzazione della scuola pubblica ha implicazioni e significati culturali del tutto peculiari. Infine sarà analizzata l’assunzione ufficiale della vocazione interculturale della scuola pubblica (parr. 9-11.) L’incrocio di questi tagli prospettici fa emergere i paradossi insiti in una società che vuole abbandonare la logica delle “communities” senza per questo abbracciare la reductio ad unum di alcuni modelli europei. L’articolo si conclude con un’analisi critica dei modelli pedagogici relativi all’educazione interculturale e con un confronto tra il modello quebecchese e alcuni modelli euro-pei, tra questi il modello italiano. This article presents a historical analysis and critical reflection on the ways that Quebec has responded to and continues to respond to the problem of providing state education in a society that is traditionally multicultural, multiethnic and plurilingual. In particular the pa
On the possibility of applying variational inequalities to computer networks
Letizia Pellegrini
Le Matematiche , 1994,
Abstract: The possibility of applying a Variational Inequality model to the study of computer networks is analysed. In particular it is shown how the concepts of duality and potential for a Variational Inequality naturally arise and are crucial in this analysis.
Unionismo fiorentino negli anni Venti. L’Associazione Cristiana dei Giovani di Firenze
Letizia Pagliai
Annali di Storia di Firenze , 2013,
Abstract: Scarni sono i riferimenti storiografici sulla sezione fiorentina dell’Associazione Cristiana dei Giovani (ACDG), il corrispettivo italiano della Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), costituita dopo la Grande Guerra da quel Giovanni Battista Giorgini (1898-1971), noto piuttosto come talento imprenditoriale della ‘moda italiana’ negli anni del Miracolo economico. Sotto la presidenza di Giorgini (1924-1933), di formazione religiosa valdese, la sezione fiorentina dell’ACDG divenne punto di riferimento di tutta l’organizzazione italiana. Questo contributo, attraverso documenti esemplificativi, segue alcune fondamentali tappe e aspetti della vita dell’Associazione fino al 1931, quando il governo fascista ne intimò drasticamente lo scioglimento con ordinanza prefettizia.
La automatización del voto. Entre el miedo y la pasión: un análisis de cuatro casos europeos
Letizia Caporusso
Revista Mexicana de Análisis Político y Administración Pública , 2012,
Abstract: En este artículo se presenta el análisis de cuatro casos empíricos sobre el despliegue de las tecnologías de votación electrónica, resaltando sus diferentes contextos y resultados. El caso de Irlanda, donde el proceso de implementación “desde arriba” activó un debate en la opinión pública que llevo a que se cancelara. Gran Bretana es el caso donde se experimentaron diversas soluciones tecnologicas, incluso en procesos electorales con valor legal, pero se renuncio a su uso en amplia escala. En Holanda, donde ya existía el uso de máquinas electrónicas de votación se enfrentaron a diversos elementos de discusión de grupos de presión que pugnaron por la reintroducción del uso de boletas de papel y lápiz. Finalmente en el caso de Estonia donde se presentó el voto por internet como uno de los diversos canales de votación, obteniendo cierto grado de confianza por parte de los ciudadanos. La comparación de estos casos muestra la importancia que tienen los valores, ideas y expectativas hacia las instituciones en torno al derecho de votar y su relación con el éxito o no de la implementación de los esquemas de e- y i-voting.
Il "Messaggero Assiano" di Georg Büchner e Friedrich Ludwig Weidig
Letizia Verzani
Scienza & Politica : per una Storia delle Dottrine , 1994, DOI: 10.6092/issn.1825-9618/2993
Abstract: Il "Messaggero Assiano" di Georg Büchner e Friedrich Ludwig Weidig
Planetary Nebulae as Probes of Stellar Evolution and Populations
Letizia Stanghellini
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: Planetary Nebulae (PNe) have been used satisfactory to test the effects of stellar evolution on the Galactic chemical environment. Moreover, a link exists between nebular morphology and stellar populations and evolution. We present the latest results on Galactic PN morphology, and an extension to a distance unbiased and homogeneous sample of Large Magellanic Cloud PNe. We show that PNe and their morphology may be successfully used as probes of stellar evolution and populations.
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