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CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000–2009
Kate Buchacz,Carl Armon,Frank J. Palella,Rose K. Baker,Ellen Tedaldi,Marcus D. Durham,John T. Brooks
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/869841
Abstract: Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis) by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78%) had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm3 and did not significantly improve over time ( ). Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis ( ). Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ≥35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment. 1. Introduction Recent HIV surveillance data suggest that approximately 33% of HIV-infected persons in the United States present for HIV testing late and have AIDS (CD4+ cell count <200?cells/mL or an AIDS-defining illness) within one year after HIV diagnosis [1, 2]. Patients are less likely to experience the full benefits of highly active combination antiretroviral (cART) therapy if they enter HIV care and initiate treatment at a CD4 count <350?cells/mm3 [3, 4]; the clinical cost is even more profound when the CD4 count is <200?cells/mm3 or the patient has already developed clinical AIDS [5–8]. In addition, persons who remain unaware of their HIV-positive status (estimated 21% to 25% of infected persons in the USA in recent years) [9, 10] may not only miss the benefits of earlier cART treatment, but are also more likely to remain chronically viremic and are thereby more likely to transmit HIV to their sexual and needle-sharing partners [9]. The CDC has been promoting strategies to encourage more widespread HIV screening to diagnose infected persons earlier in the course of their illness, including by releasing in 2006 the guidelines for implementing routine universal opt-out testing in healthcare settings [11]. Yet, the latest HIV surveillance data [1, 2] and epidemiologic studies in multiple US populations indicate that the proportion of persons who are diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection [2, 12, 13] or present late for HIV care [14, 15] remains unacceptably high. Stable or worsening
Behavioral Mechanism during Human Sperm Chemotaxis: Involvement of Hyperactivation
Leah Armon, Michael Eisenbach
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028359
Abstract: When mammalian spermatozoa become capacitated they acquire, among other activities, chemotactic responsiveness and the ability to exhibit occasional events of hyperactivated motility—a vigorous motility type with large amplitudes of head displacement. Although a number of roles have been proposed for this type of motility, its function is still obscure. Here we provide evidence suggesting that hyperactivation is part of the chemotactic response. By analyzing tracks of spermatozoa swimming in a spatial chemoattractant gradient we demonstrate that, in such a gradient, the level of hyperactivation events is significantly lower than in proper controls. This suggests that upon sensing an increase in the chemoattractant concentration capacitated cells repress their hyperactivation events and thus maintain their course of swimming toward the chemoattractant. Furthermore, in response to a temporal concentration jump achieved by photorelease of the chemoattractant progesterone from its caged form, the responsive cells exhibited a delayed turn, often accompanied by hyperactivation events or an even more intense response in the form of flagellar arrest. This study suggests that the function of hyperactivation is to cause a rather sharp turn during the chemotactic response of capacitated cells so as to assist them to reorient according to the chemoattractant gradient. On the basis of these results a model for the behavior of spermatozoa responding to a spatial chemoattractant gradient is proposed.
Effects of Physical Parameters on Bacterial Cell Adsorption onto Pre-Imprinted Sol-Gel Films  [PDF]
Jeanna Starosvetsky, Tally Cohen, Uta Cheruti, Dragoljub Dragoljub, Robert Armon
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.324051
Abstract: Organically modified silica (ORMOSILS) thin films produced by sol-gel method were imprinted with two bacterial strains as whole cells in order to develop an easy, fast and specific probe to detect and specifically identify these micro-organisms when present in water samples. An important feature of the imprinting process was the molecular finger-prints left by these microorganisms alongside morphology, into imprinted film cavities. The films also showed high selectivity toward the imprinted template and were able to discriminate between two very close bacterial species (E. coli and S. typhimurium). In addition, several central physical parameters of the experimental water solution were examined (i.e., pH, ionic strength and the organic load exemplified by NaCl and TOC concentration, respectively). The method sensitivity to different bacterial concentrations was studied by confocal microscopy (CLSM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) tools. Results showed that increased bacterial concentrations favor rapid adsorption onto imprinted sol-gel films with high affinity, while low pH, increased organic load and high ionic concentrations (i.e., seawater) interfere with bacteria re-adsorption, reducing detection capability. Under average drinking water chemical composition the method proved to be highly efficient.
Testing Human Sperm Chemotaxis: How to Detect Biased Motion in Population Assays
Leah Armon, S. Roy Caplan, Michael Eisenbach, Benjamin M. Friedrich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032909
Abstract: Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.
Whole Cell Imprinting in Sol-Gel Thin Films for Bacterial Recognition in Liquids: Macromolecular Fingerprinting
Tally Cohen,Jeanna Starosvetsky,Uta Cheruti,Robert Armon
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11041236
Abstract: Thin films of organically modified silica (ORMOSILS) produced by a sol-gel method were imprinted with whole cells of a variety of microorganisms in order to develop an easy and specific probe to concentrate and specifically identify these microorganisms in liquids (e.g., water). Microorganisms with various morphology and outer surface components were imprinted into thin sol-gel films. Adsorption of target microorganism onto imprinted films was facilitated by these macromolecular fingerprints as revealed by various microscopical examinations (SEM, AFM, HSEM and CLSM). The imprinted films showed high selectivity toward each of test microorganisms with high adsorption affinity making them excellent candidates for rapid detection of microorganisms from liquids.
Proceso de elaboración de yogur deslactosado de leche de cabra
Antonieta Rodriguez, Virginia;Fermín Cravero, Bautista;Alonso, Armonía;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612008000500018
Abstract: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un proceso para la elaboración de yogur deslactosado de leche de cabra, realizando en forma simultánea la hidrólisis de la lactosa y la fermentación. se utilizaron tres dosis de una β-galactosidasa ácida de origen fúngico (aspergillus oryzae): 1253, 2506 y 3759 unidades/l, usando como referente una muestra sin enzima. luego de una incubación de 5 horas a 38 °c y posterior conservación durante 24 horas a 4 °c, se determinaron las concentraciones de glucosa, galactosa, lactosa, ph y acidez titulable. teniendo en cuenta una concentración de lactosa en leche de 4,42 g.100 ml-1, el mayor porcentaje de hidrólisis obtenido en el yogur (82,6%, p < 0,0001) se logró con 2506 unidades/l de enzima, mientras que sin el agregado de enzima fue de 48,5%. se concluye que el proceso utilizado permitiría, en una sola etapa, la elaboración de un yogur que además de tener las propiedades hipoalergénicas y nutricionales propias de la leche de cabra, por su bajo contenido en lactosa se convertiría en un alimento de características funcionales de gran utilidad y protagonismo para aquellas personas que padecen intolerancia al azúcar de la leche.
Prevalence of hypersexual behavior in Parkinson’s disease patients: Not restricted to males and dopamine agonist use
Christine A Cooper,Armon Jadidian,Michelle Paggi,Janet Romrell
International Journal of General Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Christine A Cooper, Armon Jadidian, Michelle Paggi, Janet Romrell, Michael S Okun, et alDepartment of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: This study investigates the prevalence and demographic characteristics of hypersexuality in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Impulse control disorders in PD patients have been associated with dopamine agonist therapy. Moreover, hypersexuality and pathological gambling have been associated with males, while females may be inherently thought to be more likely to participate in compulsive shopping and binge-eating behaviors. In this study, a screening mail-in survey was sent to all PD patients at a single Movement Disorders Center. One hundred forty one of 400 (35.3%) research packets were returned completed. Fifteen of 141 patients met initial screening criteria for hypersexual behavior. After detailed interview, only 6/141 (4.3%) of PD patients met criteria for pathologic hypersexual behavior. These behaviors included: compulsive masturbation, prostitution, and paraphilias. Patients with a younger age of PD onset were more likely to exhibit hypersexual behavior. Unlike previous report, no significant association was found between hypersexuality and gender or dopamine agonist use. Rather, this study suggests that physicians should be vigilant for hypersexual behavior in all PD patients, regardless of gender and PD medication regimen. Ultimately, given the innate sensitivity of the topic and survey limitations, it is very likely that hypersexual behavior in our cohort, as it is in the general PD population, has been under-reported.Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, hypersexuality, impulsive behavior, dopamine agonists
Global Organizational Psychology: Internationalizing the Training Curriculum
Richard L. Griffith,William Gabrenya,Lisa A. Steelman,Brigitte Armon
Psychological Topics , 2012,
Abstract: Due to the rapid of globalization in the Information Age, students must become adept at navigating the complex and ambiguous nature of the global business environment. One major roadblock for training students to become global professionals is the lack of international curriculum within Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology programs at leading post-graduate training institutions. This article examines the methodologies and best practices used in establishing an International I/O Psychology curriculum at the graduate level developed to train students to better understand and work within the complexities of the global business environment. In this article we discuss the process we used to identify the major curriculum components needed for training in international I/O Psychology, and we provide specific advice for programs considering internationalization as well as lessons learned.
Productivity Shocks in the Short and Long-Run: An Intertemporal Model and Estimation
Pu Chen,Gang Gong,Armon Rezai,Willi Semmler
Investigación económica , 2008,
Cerebrospinal Fluid Magnesium Level in Different Neurological Disorders  [PDF]
Carl-Albrecht Haensch
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2010.12009
Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the CSF concentration of Mg in various neurological disorders (n = 72) and in healthy subjects (n = 75). The control group included 35 males and 40 females, aged 16-89 years (mean age 53 years) who were subjected to a lumbar puncture for diagnostic reasons. The CSF examination was normal mainly as concerns the macroscopically examination, the leukocyte count and the protein level. The determination of Mg was performed with xylidyl-blue photometry. Our normal CSF Mg mean value was 0.97 ± 0.08 mmol/l (range 0.6-1.4 mmol/l). In the group of patients (n = 11) with convulsive seizures a slightly but significantly lower Mg were revealed (0.92 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.001; paired two-tailed Student’s t-tests). No statistically significant change of CSF Mg levels was noted in patients suffering from alcohol withdrawal syndrome, multiple sclerosis or Bell’s palsy. Our results indi-cate that magnesium deficiency may play a role for seizure manifestation even in patients with a moderate low Mg without neurological signs. Low CSF magnesium is associated with epilepsy, further studies may determine the influ-ence of anti-epileptic drug therapy on CSF magnesium levels.
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