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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 524 matches for " Carine Gris "
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Experimental Evolution of a Plant Pathogen into a Legume Symbiont
Marta Marchetti,Delphine Capela,Michelle Glew,Stéphane Cruveiller,Béatrice Chane-Woon-Ming,Carine Gris,Ton Timmers,Véréna Poinsot,Luz B. Gilbert,Philipp Heeb,Claudine Médigue,Jacques Batut,Catherine Masson-Boivin
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000280
Abstract: Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate α- and β-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.
An Investigation of the Long-Run and Causal Relationships between Economy Performance, Investment and Port Sector Productivity in Cote d’Ivoire  [PDF]
China Flora Carine Anguibi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.34004
Abstract: This study used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds testing approach and Toda-Yamamoto Non-granger causality test to analyze respectively the long-run and causal relationships among economy performance, foreign direct investment, domestic investment and port sector production output in Cote d’Ivoire over the period 1980-2013. The empirical results illustrate that economy performance, foreign direct investment and domestic investment are significant in explaining the productivity of port sector. Therefore, the study suggests focusing on investment strategies that involve private (foreign and domestic) participation in projects dedicated to improve the safety, quality of operations in the sector and transport connectivity.
Analyzing the Operational Efficiency of Container Ports in Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Anguibi China Flora Carine
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.310002
Abstract: This study presents an evaluation of the relative efficiency of sixteen container ports in Sub-Sahara Africa using three DEA models namely CCR, BCC and Super-Efficiency over the year 2012. The CCR and BCC models are used to estimate the technical and scale efficiency while the super-efficiency technique provides a ranking of efficient ports. The efficiency results indicate that on average the inefficiency observed in the container ports under evaluation is due to scale rather than technical inefficiency. Further, by investigating the nature of the returns to scale, the study concludes that the majority of the container ports exhibit variable returns to scale while fewer experience constant returns to scale in their operations. In order to improve their overall efficiency, the ports showing increasing and decreasing returns to scale need to increase and decrease their size, respectively. Consequently, for container ports to survive in the competitive environment, port authorities should examine their operational scale to identify whether the production size is appropriate or not before making investment decision in terms of inputs resources enhancement or capacity expansion.
Les enfants de la guerre : Le Grand Cahier d’Agota Kristof
Carine Trevisan
Amnis , 2006, DOI: 10.4000/amnis.952
Abstract: On examine, à partir de l’étude du Grand Cahier, d’Agota Kristof, la fa on dont l’état de guerre expulse souvent brutalement l’enfant de sa position d’enfant, lui assignant une place problématique, notamment dans la succession des générations. Non seulement témoin mais aussi souvent victime de la sauvagerie des adultes, il peut néanmoins s’ identifier à l’agresseur et devenir à son tour meurtrier. Donnant fictivement la parole à des enfants qui font l’épreuve de la brutalisation des comportements des hommes et femmes en état de guerre, Le Grand Cahier, par le choix d’une écriture glacée – on a qualifié ce livre d’ exercice de cruauté –, conduit à son extrême limite cette représentation de l’enfance dévastée, au point qu’elle en devient inquiétante : abolition de toute faculté à rêver, à imaginer, anesthésie de la vie émotive, destruction de tout ce qui peut faire lien avec autrui, d’où insensibilité à la mort, re ue ou donnée. Cette chute hors de l’humain peut cependant être considérée comme une technique, certes mutilante, de survie. En el estudio de El gran cuaderno de Agota Kristof se analiza cómo el estado de guerra expulsa, a menudo brutalmente, al ni o de su posición de ni o y le asigna una plaza problemática, en particular en la sucesión de las generaciones. A pesar de que el ni o no sea solamente testigo sino también víctima de la bestialidad de los adultos, puede sin embargo identificarse con el agresor y convertirse en un asesino. Al dar de manera ficticia la palabra a ni os que han sufrido la brutalidad de los comportamientos de los hombres y mujeres en tiempos de guerra, El gran cuaderno, a través de una escritura insensible – se ha utilizado para hablar de este libro la expresión ejercicio de crueldad –, representa con todas sus consecuencias una ni ez destrozada, hasta el punto de convertirla en algo inquietante: eliminación de cualquier capacidad para so ar e imaginar, anestesia de la vida emotiva, destrucción de todo aquello que permite establecer un vínculo con el otro, de donde se entiende la insensibilidad ante la muerte, recibida o dada. Esta caída fuera de lo humano puede sin embargo ser considerada como una técnica, desde luego mutiladora, de supervivencia. Starting with the study of The Notebook by Agota Kristof, this paper examines the way the state of war expels often brutally the child of its child's position, assigning him(her) a problematic place, particularly in the succession of generations. Not only witness but also often victim of the brutality of the adults, the child can nevertheless “be identified with the at
Avant-propos
Carine Trevisan
Amnis , 2010,
Abstract: Ce neuvième numéro d’Amnis examine les manières dont, dans un environnement socialement ou historiquement hostile, s’inventent des stratégies de résistance ou de survie inédites. Il met en relief la fa on dont la contrainte, l’empêchement à penser, l’exposition à la violence extrême peuvent être paradoxalement sources de création.Celle-ci prend des formes multiples : depuis le refus, face à la menace génocidaire (Janine Altounian) ou au risque d’anéantissement psychique dans les camps soviéti...
Penser et construire l’espace tojolabal à travers une expérience rituelle transfrontalière (Mexique-Guatemala) Conceiving and Constructing the Tojolabal Space by Means of a Cross-Border Ritual (Mexico-Guatemala)
Carine Chavarochette
Ateliers d'Anthropologie , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/ateliers.9221
Abstract: Au sud-est de l’état mexicain du Chiapas vivent des populations mayas tojolabal. L’une des origines mythiques de ce groupe se situe au Guatemala dans les montagnes des Cuchumatanes, dans un lieu habité par un autre groupe maya : les Chuj. Depuis la révolution mexicaine de 1910-1920 et la réforme agraire entreprise par les autorités gouvernementales, les Tojolabal entretiennent par l’intermédiaire de rituels des relations avec les Chuj du pays voisin. En choisissant de se rendre au Guatemala, les pèlerins tojolabal ne franchissent pas seulement une frontière politique et étatique, ils construisent et donnent sens à leur territoire par le fait même de traverser des limites. L’évolution de l’itinéraire et des pratiques religieuses tout au long du xxe siècle témoigne des événements politiques vécus par ces populations. The southeast Mexican state of Chiapas is home to Tojolabal Maya populations. One of the mythical origins of this group takes place in Guatemala in the Cuchumatanes mountains, in an area inhabited by another Maya group: the Chuj. Since the 1910-1920 Mexican revolution and the land reforms introduced by the government, the Tojolabal have been maintaining relations with the Chuj in the neighbouring country through rituals. By choosing to travel to Guatemala, the Tojolabal pilgrims cross not only a political and state boundary, they construct and give meaning to their territory by the very fact of crossing limits. The evolution of the religious itinerary and practices throughout the 20th century testify to the political events experienced by these populations.
LAURENT MAUVIGNIER, POUR UNE REDéFINITION DE L’éCRIVAIN ENGAGé ? LAURENT MAUVIGNIER, POUR UNE REDéFINITION DE L’éCRIVAIN ENGAGé ?
Carine Capone
Revue Electronique de Litterature Francaise : RELIEF , 2012,
Abstract: Laurent Mauvignier, écrivain reconnu pour son style, est peu étudié sous l’angle de l’engagement social. Pourtant son oeuvre se centre sur les laissés pour compte de la société, et depuis 2004, ses textes semblent encore plus ancrés dans le monde réel avec le drame du Heysel, la guerre d’Algérie, ou un fait divers pour toile de fond. Si l’auteur semble ainsi vouloir parler du monde, dans un même temps, son style se caractérise par un travail approfondi sur l’incertitude, le doute. Nous questionnerons ainsi l’apparent paradoxe entre engagement et incertitude à partir des trois derniers textes parus. Laurent Mauvignier, écrivain reconnu pour son style, est peu étudié sous l’angle de l’engagement social. Pourtant son oeuvre se centre sur les laissés pour compte de la société, et depuis 2004, ses textes semblent encore plus ancrés dans le monde réel avec le drame du Heysel, la guerre d’Algérie, ou un fait divers pour toile de fond. Si l’auteur semble ainsi vouloir parler du monde, dans un même temps, son style se caractérise par un travail approfondi sur l’incertitude, le doute. Nous questionnerons ainsi l’apparent paradoxe entre engagement et incertitude à partir des trois derniers textes parus.
Mesures d'incitation en faveur de la conservation de la diversité génétique en matière agricole. 1. Programmes agricoles pour la conservation de la biodiversité en Belgique
Carine Baltus
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 1997,
Abstract: Incitation measures in favour of a conservation of genetic diversity for agricultural matters. 1. Agricultural programmes for the conservation of biodiversity in Belgium.Some negative consequences of an intensive agriculture on the environment are in contradiction with the commitments taken, by Belgium among others, at the signature of the Convention on Biodiversity at Rio in 1992. The action plan relative to biodiversity conservation in Belgium tomes as a follow-up of the European Union's policy but also integrates actions initiated at local levels of power such as communes. The Belgian agro-environmental programme (based on EEC regulation 2078/92) includes several parts concerning the Federal Authority, the Regions and the Communities. Federal help measures have been applied for the entire territory with as main objective an extensification of agriculture. These measures are of three types: reconversion to organic farming, a decrease in animal density, and demonstration projects. The Walloon and Flemish Regions have established their own specific agro-environmental programmes which are reviewed here. Through education, the Communities are also concerned by these incentive measures. Nevertheless, in the southern part of Belgium, it is the Walloon Region and not the French Community that will undertake to develop some demonstration projects concerning production practices compatible with environmental protection. Comparable projects will be ran by the Flemish Community, which is also planning to organize specific lectures and training courses on environment. At the municipal level, numerous actions aiming at sustainable agriculture have been initiated: the biodiversity contracta of the "Fondation Roi Baudouin", the operation "1 000 communes pour l'environnement européen" and the "plans communaux de développement de la nature".
Stellar populations in the Galactic Bulge (review)
Carine Babusiaux
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Until recently our knowledge of the Galactic Bulge stellar populations was based on the study of a few low extinction windows. Large photometric and spectroscopic surveys are now underway to map large areas of the bulge. They probe several complex structures which are still to be fully characterized as well as their links with the inner disc, the thick disc and the inner halo. I will review our current, rapidly increasing, knowledge of the bulge stellar populations and the new insight expected towards the Gaia era to disentangle the formation history of the Galactic inner regions.
Experimental Evolution of a Plant Pathogen into a Legume Symbiont
Marta Marchetti equal contributor,Delphine Capela equal contributor,Michelle Glew equal contributor,Stéphane Cruveiller,Béatrice Chane-Woon-Ming,Carine Gris,Ton Timmers,Véréna Poinsot,Luz B. Gilbert,Philipp Heeb,Claudine Médigue,Jacques Batut,Catherine Masson-Boivin
PLOS Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000280
Abstract: Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate α- and β-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.
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