Abstract:
Angelino Julio Cariello,1 Paulo José Martins Bispo,2 Gabriela Freitas Pereira de Souza,3 Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari,2 Marcelo Ganzarolli de Oliveira,3 Ana Luisa Hofling-Lima11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of S o Paulo, 3Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, S o Paulo, BrazilBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two nitric oxide donors, ie, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), against clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis.Methods: Reference broth microdilution assays were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations for GSNO and SNAC against four American Type Culture Collection strains and 52 clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis as follows: 14 (26.9%) Pseudomonas species; 13 (25.0%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci; 10 (19.2%) Staphylococcus aureus; nine (17.3%) Serratia marcescens; and six (11.5%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Sterility control and bacterial growth control were also performed.Results: SNAC showed lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations than GSNO for all clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis. For Gram-positive bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 and 8.6 ± 3.8 mM for SNAC and 4.6 ± 3.2 and 21.5 ± 12.5 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). For Gram-negative bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.3 ± 1.4 and 6.1 ± 3.4 mM for SNAC and 12.4 ± 5.4 and 26.5 ± 10.1 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). The minimum bactericidal to inhibitory concentration ratio was ≤8 in 100% of all isolates tested for SNAC and in 94.2% tested for GSNO.Conclusions: SNAC and GSNO had effective inhibitory and bactericidal effects against bacterial isolates from keratitis. SNAC showed greater antimicrobial activity than GSNO against all bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the inhibitory and bactericidal effects of the S-nitrosothiols.Keywords: antimicrobial activity, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine, S-nitrosoglutathione, nitric oxide donors, infectious keratitis

Abstract:
actericidal effect of S-nitrosothiols against clinical isolates from keratitis Original Research (1006) Total Article Views Authors: Cariello AJ, Bispo PJ, de Souza GF, Pignatari AC, de Oliveira MG, Hofling-Lima AL Published Date November 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 1907 - 1914 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S34830 Received: 08 June 2012 Accepted: 10 September 2012 Published: 20 November 2012 Angelino Julio Cariello,1 Paulo José Martins Bispo,2 Gabriela Freitas Pereira de Souza,3 Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari,2 Marcelo Ganzarolli de Oliveira,3 Ana Luisa Hofling-Lima1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of S o Paulo, 3Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, S o Paulo, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two nitric oxide donors, ie, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), against clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis. Methods: Reference broth microdilution assays were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations for GSNO and SNAC against four American Type Culture Collection strains and 52 clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis as follows: 14 (26.9%) Pseudomonas species; 13 (25.0%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci; 10 (19.2%) Staphylococcus aureus; nine (17.3%) Serratia marcescens; and six (11.5%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Sterility control and bacterial growth control were also performed. Results: SNAC showed lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations than GSNO for all clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis. For Gram-positive bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 and 8.6 ± 3.8 mM for SNAC and 4.6 ± 3.2 and 21.5 ± 12.5 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). For Gram-negative bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.3 ± 1.4 and 6.1 ± 3.4 mM for SNAC and 12.4 ± 5.4 and 26.5 ± 10.1 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). The minimum bactericidal to inhibitory concentration ratio was ≤8 in 100% of all isolates tested for SNAC and in 94.2% tested for GSNO. Conclusions: SNAC and GSNO had effective inhibitory and bactericidal effects against bacterial isolates from keratitis. SNAC showed greater antimicrobial activity than GSNO against all bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the inhibitory and bactericidal effects of the S-nitrosothiols.

Abstract:
In order to compute the Schmidt decomposition of $A\in M_k\otimes M_m$, we must consider an associated self-adjoint map. Here, we show that if $A$ is positive under partial transposition (PPT) or symmetric with positive coefficients (SPC) or invariant under realignment then its associated self-adjoint map is completely reducible. We give applications of this fact in Quantum Information Theory. We recover some theorems recently proved for PPT and SPC matrices and we prove these theorems for matrices invariant under realignment using theorems of Perron-Frobenius theory. We also provide a new proof of the fact that if $\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k$ mutually unbiased bases then $\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k+1$. We search for other types of matrices that could have the same property. We consider a group of linear transformations acting on $M_k\otimes M_k$, which contains the partial transpositions and the realignment map. For each element of this group, we consider the set of matrices in $M_k\otimes M_k\simeq M_{k^2}$ that are positive and remain positive, or invariant, under the action of this element. Within this family of sets, we have the set of PPT matrices, the set of SPC matrices and the set of matrices invariant under realignment. We show that these three sets are the only sets of this family such that the associated self-adjoint map of each matrix is completely reducible. We also show that every matrix invariant under realignment is PPT in $M_2\otimes M_2$ and we present a counterexample in $M_k\otimes M_k$, $k\geq 3$.

Abstract:
Recently, in [1], the author proved that many results that are true for PPT matrices also hold for another class of matrices with a certain symmetry in their Hermitian Schmidt decompositions. These matrices were called SPC in [1] (definition 1.1). Before that, in [9], T\'oth and G\"uhne proved that if a state is symmetric then it is PPT if and only if it is SPC. A natural question appeared: What is the connection between SPC matrices and PPT matrices? Is every SPC matrix PPT? Here we show that every SPC matrix is PPT in $M_2\otimes M_2$ (theorem 4.3). This theorem is a consequence of the fact that every density matrix in $M_2\otimes M_m$, with tensor rank smaller or equal to 3, is separable (theorem 3.2). This theorem is a generalization of the same result found in [1] for tensor rank 2 matrices in $M_k\otimes M_m$. Although, in $M_3\otimes M_3$, there exists a SPC matrix with tensor rank 3 that is not PPT (proposition 5.2). We shall also provide a non trivial example of a family of matrices in $M_k\otimes M_k$, in which both, the SPC and PPT properties, are equivalent (proposition 6.2). Within this family, there exists a non trivial subfamily in which the SPC property is equivalent to separability (proposition 6.4).

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the study of the separability problem in the field of Quantum information theory. We deal mainly with the bipartite finite dimensional case and with two types of matrices, one of them being the PPT matrices. We proved that many results holds for both types. If these matrices have specific Hermitian Schmidt decompositions then the matrices are separable in a very strong sense. We proved that both types have what we call split decompositions. We defined the notion of weak irreducible matrix, based on the concept of irreducible state defined recently. These split decomposition theorems together with the notion of weak irreducible matrix, imply that these matrices are weak irreducible or a sum of weak irreducible matrices of the same type. The separability problem for these types of matrices can be reduced to the set of weak irreducible matrices of the same type. We also provided a complete description of weak irreducible matrices of both types. Using the fact that every positive semidefinite Hermitian matrix with tensor rank 2 is separable, we found sharp inequalites providing separability for both types.

Abstract:
Ideally an intervention to reduce delayed presentation of breast cancer would promote early help-seeking behaviour by patients at high risk of having cancer, but would not promote anxiety amongst people at low risk. It is important that patients should not be made unnecessarily anxious, and nor should general practitioners be overburdened with consultations with the worried well population. Based on the empirical evidence for the risk factors for patient delay and using effective behavioural change techniques, we have developed and are evaluating a psycho-educational intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer by older women. We have focused our intervention on older women who are at greater risk of breast cancer and are also more likely to delay their presentation. The intervention is delivered by trained diagnostic radiographers at the point when the women leave the routine protection afforded by the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme and is in line with government recommended practice and complementary to the Breast Screening Programme. The ultimate aim of the intervention is to reduce the proportion of older women with breast cancer who delay their presentation, and thereby save lives.I will outline this work and other current initiatives within the United Kingdom to promote awareness and early presentation of breast cancer and how these might inform the development of policy initiatives to improve outcomes for patients within the National Health Service.

Abstract:
The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of sub-Saharan Black African descent tend to give birth to more females? Or to put this question the other way around, compared to Black women, why do non-Black women give birth to more males? (Afr J Reprod Health 2008; 12[3]:139-150).

Abstract:
Growth hormone (GH) variants have been studied for the structure-function relationship of the molecule. The presence of a potential alternate splicing point in mRNA in bGH gene at exon 3, similar to hGH has been reported by workers. Early investigation on the characteristics of the chemistry of 20k oGH showed that the molecule was produced by site-directed mutagenesis by deleting amino acid residues 33-46 and the resultant DNA was expressed in E. coli under the control of lac promoter in pUC based plasmid. The mutant protein remained insoluble and did not refold. To investigate the effect of deletion on the chemistry of the molecule, computational biology tools were employed. The mutant with the deletion of amino acid residues 33-46, was designed and the model was visualized on computer. The structure of 20k bGH was compared with bGH and dissected for hydrogen bonds and hydrophobicity. Computational biology tools were helpful in elucidating the role of 33-46 amino acid residues domain in the chemistry of the molecule. Furthermore, it was revealed that removal of amino acid residues 33-46 which formed the hydrogen bonds involving Glu 33, Gln 46, Pro 38, Arg 42, Tyr 43,Ala 51, Thr 48, Asn 47, led to the formation of new hydrogen bonds between Thr 33, Tyr 144, Asn 32, Asn 32 and Ser and Asp 153. The removal of the amino acids 33-46 decreased the hydro-phobicity of the first helix of bGH molecule, as compared to 20k hGH, thus altering the solubility of the molecule, confirming the earlier reported results for ovine growth hormone with same deletion.

Abstract:
Book Title: Kijk op Geloof Christelijk geloof uitgelegd Author: Henri Veldhuis ISBN: 9789023918134 Publisher: Boekencentrum, Zoetermeer, 2005, p. 287,