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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145651 matches for " Carey F McCarthy "
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The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives
McCarthy Carey F,Riley Patricia L
Human Resources for Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-10-26
Abstract: Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and professional standards in this region of Africa. The African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will measure the progress of country projects and conduct an annual evaluation of the initiative’s regional impact, thereby contributing to the global evidence base of health workforce interventions. Conclusion The African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives is designed to address priority needs in health workforce development and improve regulation of the health workforce. This model may assist others countries and regions facing similar workforce challenges.
Nursing and midwifery regulation and HIV scale-up: establishing a baseline in east, central and southern Africa
Carey F McCarthy,Joachim Voss,Andre R Verani,Peggy Vidot
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2013, DOI: 10.7448/ias.16.1.18051
Abstract: Introduction: Shifting HIV treatment tasks from physicians to nurses and midwives is essential to scaling-up HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa. Updating nursing and midwifery regulations to include task shifting and pre-service education reform can help facilitate reaching new HIV targets. Donor-supported initiatives to update nursing and midwifery regulations are increasing. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of current practice and education regulations and a lack of information to target and implement regulation strengthening efforts. We conducted a survey of national nursing and midwifery councils to describe current nursing and midwifery regulations in 13 African countries. Methods: A 30-item survey was administered to a convenience sample of 13 national nursing and midwifery regulatory body leaders in attendance at the PEPFAR-supported African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative meeting in Nairobi, Kenya on 28 February, 2011. The survey contained questions on task shifting and regulations such as registration, licensure, scope of practice, pre-service education accreditation, continuing professional development and use of international guidelines. Survey data were analyzed to present country-level, comparative and regional findings. Results: Task shifting to nurses and midwives was reported in 11 of the 13 countries. Eight countries updated their scope of practice within the last five years; only one reported their regulations to reflect task shifting. Countries vary with regard to licensure, pre-service accreditation and continuing professional development regulations in place. There was no consistency in terms of what standards were used to design national practice and education regulations. Discussion: Many opportunities exist to assist countries to modernise regulations to incorporate important advancements from task shifting and pre-service reform. Appropriate, revised regulations can help sustain successful health workforce strategies and contribute to further scale-up HIV services and other global health priorities. Conclusions: This study provides fundamental information from which to articulate goals and to measure the impact of regulation strengthening efforts.
Carbon fluxes in soil: long-term sequestration in deeper soil horizons


地理学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Terrestrial ecosystems represent the second largest carbon reservoir, and the C balance in terrestrial ecosystems can be directly impacted by human activities such as agricultural management practices and land-use changes. This paper focuses on the C-sequestration in soil. Although many studies showed that the concentration of SOC is much higher in the shallow soils (0-30 cm), the deeper horizons represent a much greater mass of soil and represent a huge C-storage pool. The process of preferential retention of more strongly adsorbing components, along with competitive displacement of weakly binding components are the key processes that enhance the movement of organic carbon to deeper soil horizons. DOC represents the most dynamic part of organic carbon in soils, and thus can be used as a timely indicator of the short-term change of C-sequestration. Long-term experiments have demonstrated that higher SOC levels in shallow soils would lead to increased fluxes of DOC to deeper horizons, but more data on a wider range of soils and treatment strategies are needed to fully evaluate the linkages between changes in SOC in shallow soil, vertical fluxes of DOC to deeper soil horizons, and enhanced C-inventories in deeper, slow-turnover SOC pools.
Topological Quantum Field Theory and Seiberg-Witten Monopoles
R. B. Zhang,B. L. Wang,A. L. Carey,J. McCarthy
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1023/A:1007319915035
Abstract: A topological quantum field theory is introduced which reproduces the Seiberg-Witten invariants of four-manifolds. Dimensional reduction of this topological field theory leads to a new one in three dimensions. Its partition function yields a three-manifold invariant, which can be regarded as the Seiberg-Witten version of Casson's invariant. A Geometrical interpretation of the three dimensional quantum field theory is also given.
System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems
Philip F. Henshaw,Carey King,Jay Zarnikau
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3101908
Abstract: A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S), a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].
System Energy Assessment (SEA), Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems
Philip F. Henshaw,Carey King,Jay Zarnikau
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA), identifies the natural boundaries of businesses as self-managing net-energy systems, of controlled and self-managing parts. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm case study, and applied to defining a true physical measure of its energy productivity for society (EROI-S), the global ratio of energy produced to energy cost. The traceable needs of business technology are combined with assignable energy needs for all other operating services. That serves to correct a large natural gap in energy use information. Current methods count traceable energy receipts for technology use. Self-managing services employed by businesses outsource their own energy needs to operate, and leave no records to trace. Those uncounted energy demands are often 80% of the total embodied energy of business end products. The scale of this "dark energy" was discovered from differing global accounts, and corrected so the average energy cost per dollar for businesses would equal the world average energy use per dollar of GDP. Presently the energy needs of paid services that outsource their own energy needs are counted for lack of information to be "0". Our default assumption is to treat them as "average". The result is to assign total energy use and impacts to the demand for energy services, for a "Scope 4" GHG assessment level. Counting only the energy uses of technology understates the energy needs of business services, as if services were more energy efficient than technology. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et. al. in 1981 [9]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, locating a natural physical boundary for its working parts, to define businesses as physical rather than statistical subjects of science. :measurement, natural systems
Dixmier traces and some applications to noncommutative geometry
A. L. Carey,F. A. Sukochev
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1070/RM2006v061n06ABEH004369
Abstract: This is a survey of some recent advances in the theory of singular traces in which the authors have played some part and which were inspired by questions raised by the book of Alain Connes (Noncommutative Geometry, Academic Press 1994). There are some original proofs and ideas but most of the results have appeared elsewhere. Detailed information on the contents is contained in the Introduction.
Detecting Time-dependent Structure in Network Data via a New Class of Latent Process Models
Lucy F. Robinson,Carey E. Priebe
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce a new class of latent process models for dynamic relational network data with the goal of detecting time-dependent structure. Network data are often observed over time, and static network models for such data may fail to capture relevant dynamic features. We present a new technique for identifying the emergence or disappearance of distinct subpopulations of vertices. In this formulation, a network is observed over time, with attributed edges appearing at random times. At unknown time points, subgroups of vertices may exhibit a change in behavior. Such changes may take the form of a change in the overall probability of connection within or between subgroups, or a change in the distribution of edge attributes. A mixture distribution for latent vertex positions is used to detect heterogeneities in connectivity behavior over time and over vertices. The probability of edges with various attributes at a given time is modeled using a latent-space stochastic process associated with each vertex. A random dot product model is used to describe the dependency structure of the graph. As an application we analyze the Enron email corpus.
Tempests and tales: challenges to the study of sex differences in the brain
Margaret M McCarthy, Gregory F Ball
Biology of Sex Differences , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-2-4
Abstract: Jordan-Young wrote Brain Storm after she became interested in the causes of variation in human sexual behavior while engaging in a study of human sexuality related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. During the course of this work, she was struck by the substantial variation that is exhibited by humans in relation to sexual behavior and the difficulty one can encounter in fitting individuals neatly into categories such as man versus woman or homosexual versus heterosexual. In this context, she was fascinated by the claim that there might be a "male or female" or a "gay versus straight" brain. Her interest was piqued by Simon LeVay's 1991 Science paper [7] because it employed a very simple categorization of its subjects into "men, women and gay men." She questioned the value of such a scheme, given the lack of sharp categorical boundaries she had experienced in her own work. When trying to understand the possible causes of correlations between brain structure and human sexual behavior identified by Gorski et al. [8], LeVay [7] and Swaab [9], to name a few, she learned about the organizational and activational hypothesis proposed by Phoenix et al. in 1959 [10]. The now iconic organizational and activational hypothesis codifies the concept that early hormone exposure permanently organizes the neural substrates which will be activated in a sex-specific manner in adulthood by gonadal steroid hormone production. As most readers of this journal will know, whether this hypothesis can be applied to the human brain remains a matter of controversy and a difficult question to address, given the inability to perform the same types of experiments that have clarified the validity of the hypothesis in other species. Jordan-Young reviews, in a thorough and engaging manner, the challenges and pitfalls of trying to study brain sexual differentiation in humans. This is one of the strongest aspects of the book. Human behavior is complex and often does not exhibit marked
Using Decision Trees for Coreference Resolution
Joseph F. McCarthy,Wendy G. Lehnert
Computer Science , 1995,
Abstract: This paper describes RESOLVE, a system that uses decision trees to learn how to classify coreferent phrases in the domain of business joint ventures. An experiment is presented in which the performance of RESOLVE is compared to the performance of a manually engineered set of rules for the same task. The results show that decision trees achieve higher performance than the rules in two of three evaluation metrics developed for the coreference task. In addition to achieving better performance than the rules, RESOLVE provides a framework that facilitates the exploration of the types of knowledge that are useful for solving the coreference problem.
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