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OALib Journal期刊

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GAIA
Ernesto Cardenal
Polis : Revista de la Universidad Bolivariana , 2007,
Abstract:
Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador
Ana Sofía Cardenal
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1996,
Abstract: This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.
Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?
Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2008,
Abstract: The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.
Quine′s critic to the propositional attitudes La crítica de Quine a las actitudes proposicionales
Ma Lourdes Cardenal Mogollón
HYBRIS : Revista de Filsofía , 2011,
Abstract: This paper studies the problems in the propositional attitudes in Quine′s work. To that end, the text has been structured in three parts. In the first part the most significant features of his philosophy are analyzed, emphasizing the ones that are going to determine his stance on the propositional attitudes. In the following section, Word and Object pages will be studied, and his arguments about the issue that we are addressing will be outlined. Finally, we will examine some of the criticisms that several authors have made regarding his stance and the reach of such ideas. En este artículo se estudia la problemática de las actitudes proposicionales en Willard Quine. Para ello, se ha estructurado el texto en tres partes. En una primera parte se analizan los rasgos más significativos de su pensamiento, haciendo especial énfasis en aquellos que van a determinar su postura ante las actitudes proposicionales. A continuación, se examinan las páginas de Word and Object y se exponen sus argumentaciones respecto al tema que nos ocupa. Finalmente, se examinan las críticas que ciertos autores han realizado acerca de su postura ante las actitudes proposicionales y el alcance de tales confrontaciones.
Zeta Functions for Bivariate Laurent Polynomials over $p-$adic Fields
Edwin León-Cardenal
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We continue the study of local zeta functions for Laurent polynomials started in [Le\'on-Cardenal E., Z\'u\~niga-Galindo W.A., Local zeta functions for non-degenerate Laurent polynomials over $p-$adic Fields. J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo., 20 (2013), 1--27.]. We give an explicit formula for the local zeta function attached to a bivariate Laurent polynomial $f$ over a $p-$adic field, when $f$ is weakly non-degenerate with respect to a Newton polytope associated to $f$.
Analysis of the Expression, Secretion and Translocation of the Salmonella enterica Type III Secretion System Effector SteA
Elena Cardenal-Mu?oz, Francisco Ramos-Morales
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026930
Abstract: Many Gram-negative pathogens possess virulence-related type III secretion systems. Salmonella enterica uses two of these systems, encoded on the pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2, respectively, to translocate more than 30 effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. SteA is one of the few effectors that can be translocated by both systems. We investigated the conditions affecting the synthesis of this effector, its secretion to culture media and its translocation into host cells. Whereas steA was expressed under a wide range of conditions, some factors, including low and high osmolarity, and presence of butyrate, decreased expression. SteA was efficiently secreted to the culture media under both SPI-1 and SPI-2 inducing conditions. The kinetics of translocation into murine macrophages and human epithelial cells was studied using fusions with the 3xFLAG tag, and fusions with CyaA from Bordetella pertussis. Translocation into macrophages under non-invasive conditions was mainly dependent on the SPI-2-encoded type III secretion system but some participation of the SPI-1 system was also detected 6 hours post-infection. Interestingly, both type III secretion systems had a relevant role in the translocation of SteA into epithelial cells. Finally, a deletion approach allowed the identification of the N-terminal signal necessary for translocation of this effector. The amino acid residues 1–10 were sufficient to direct translocation into host cells through both type III secretion systems. Our results provide new examples of functional overlapping between the two type III secretion systems of Salmonella.
Propagación in vitro de plantas adultas de Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae)
Rache Cardenal, Leidy Yanira;Pacheco Maldonado, José Constantino;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062010000400024
Abstract: using stem apex as primary explants, a micropropagation protocol of vaccinium meridionale was established. during establishment phase the effect of the ms/3, wpm, and and kyte media, supplemented with 2-ip plus iaa or ba plus iaa was studied. during microshoot proliferation the effect of ms/3 liquid, solid and double phase (the liquid phase in a solidified phase with agar) supplemented with 2-ip plus iaa was evaluated. in vitro and ex vitro rooting of microshoots and microshoots was accomplished using auxines and/or activated charcoal; for root development a substratum with abundant organic matter was utilized. plantlet hardening was achived simultaneously with the radical development process. after establishment phase, the highest quantity of axillary buds/explant was quantified in cultures performed in ms/3 supplemented with 2-ip, 59.05 μm plus iaa 17.13 μm. during the microshoot proliferation phase the highest average production was obtained in double phase ms/3. after 60 days of hardening 88-100% of rooted microshoots was obtained; these plantlets showed growth reactivation.
Predictores de la iniciación al consumo de tabaco en escolares de ense?anza secundaria de Barcelona y Lleida
Ariza i Cardenal,Carles; Nebot i Adell,Manel;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272002000300007
Abstract: background: knowing the factors predisposing the smoking onset of smoking at school age may help to improve the preventive strategies and make the starting age later. this study is set out to describe the natural history of smoking throughout the teen-age years and the main factors which may predict teenagers developing the smoking habit. methods: this is a longitudinal study of a survey type, using the schoolroom as the sampling unit at six schools in barcelona and lleida. a total of 1,460 students within the 12-19 age range took part. two surveys were conducted, an initial survey in the spring of 1992 and a follow-up survey one year later. a total of 1,236 questionnaires (84.3%) were paired by means of a personal code used for the longitudinal study. results: a total of 25% of the students were regular smokers at the start of the study, 17.1% smoking occasionally or having experimented with smoking, there being no differences between sexes for both of these categories. among those who were non-smokers at the starting survey, 12.7% stated that they smoked occasionally and 6.2% regularly one year later. the females started smoking at an earlier age, the differences as compared to males being statistically significant at 14 years of age. the predictors of the smoking onset include favorable attitudes toward cigarettes (or=3.1; ci5% (1.6-5.6), drinking alcoholic beverages (or=2.2; ci95% (1.4-3.3), being younger than age 15 (or=2.0; ci95% (1.2-3.4), having friends who smoke (or=1.9, ci95% (1.2-3.0) and the stated intention of smoking in the future (or=1.6; ci95% (1.0-2.5). conclusions: the students showing a higher degree of tolerance toward cigarette smoking, entailing favorable attitudes or friends who smoke or who intend to smoke in the future at the start of the study are at a much higher risk of smoking onset than their classmates who are not of these characteristics. the cigarette smoking prevention programs must focus special attention on the teenagers most high
EXPRESIóN DE EMOCIONES Y BIENESTAR EN UN GRUPO DE MUJERES CON CáNCER DE MAMA: UNA INTERVENCIóN PSICOLóGICA
Cerezo,María Victoria; Ortiz-Tallo,Margarita; Cardenal,Violeta;
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología , 2009,
Abstract: after having realized a psychological evaluation to a group of 40 women with breast cancer, a psychological group intervention has been designed and applied to 20 of them, who participated voluntarily. this evaluation consisted in a structured interview and an application of millon clinical multiaxial inventory-iii (mcmi-iii), finding personality traits related to difficulties in emotional expression and clinical syndromes that damage personal well-being. following millona′s theory an integrative psychotherapy is designed and put into practice, and it was provided to 20 women during 12 sessions. in order to check the efficacy of the applied intervention, the scale of emotional intelligence traid meta mood scale 24, tmms-24; and two scales of personal well-being, the diener, emmons, larsen y griffin scale, ant the mroczek y kolarz affect scale, were administrated before and after this intervention. results showed that women who received the intervention have improved in the regulation of their negative emotions and their personal well-being, while the group of control showed no difference in these variables.
Predictores de la iniciación al consumo de tabaco en escolares de ense anza secundaria de Barcelona y Lleida
Ariza i Cardenal Carles,Nebot i Adell Manel
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2002,
Abstract: Fundamento: El conocimiento de los factores que predisponen a la iniciación en el consumo de tabaco en la edad escolar puede ayudar a mejorar las estrategias preventivas y retrasar la edad de inicio. El presente estudio se plantea describir la historia natural del consumo de tabaco a lo largo de la adolescencia y los principales factores que pueden predecir la evolución a fumar. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio longitudinal, de tipo prospectivo, utilizando el aula escolar como unidad muestral, en 6 escuelas de Barcelona y Lleida. Participaron un total de 1.460 escolares con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 19 a os. Se realizaron dos encuestas, una inicial en la primavera de 1992 y otra de seguimiento un a o más tarde. 1.236 cuestionarios (84,7%) se emparejaron a través de un código personal utilizado para el estudio longitudinal. Resultados: El porcentaje de escolares fumadores regulares al inicio del estudio era del 28%, con un 17,1% de fumadores ocasionales o experimentadores, sin diferencias entre sexos para ambas categorías. De los alumnos no-fumadores en la encuesta inicial, un a o más tarde se declaraban fumadores ocasionales un 12,7% y un 6,2% fumadores regulares. Existe una mayor precocidad en el inicio del consumo de tabaco en el sexo femenino, siendo las diferencias con el sexo masculino estadísticamente significativas a los 14 a os de edad. Los predictores de la iniciación incluyen las actitudes favorables ante el tabaco (OR=3,1; IC95% (1,6-5,6)), el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas (OR=2,2; IC95% (1,4-3,3)), ser menor de 15 a os (OR=2,0; IC95% (1,2-3,4)), tener amigos fumadores (OR=1,9; IC95% (1,2-3,0)) y la intención declarada de fumar en el futuro (OR=1,6; IC95% (1,0-2,5)). Conclusiones: Los escolares con una mayor tolerancia hacia el consumo de tabaco, con unas actitudes favorables o con amigos fumadores o con intención de fumar en el futuro al comienzo del estudio, tienen mucho mayor riesgo de iniciarse en el hábito tabáquico que los que no muestran estas características. Los programas de prevención del tabaquismo deberían prestar especial atención a los adolescentes más vulnerables a estos factores.
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