Abstract:
The fuzzy switched PID controller which combines fuzzy PD and conventional PI controller is proposed for ship track-keeping autopilot In this paper. By using rudder angle, the whole voyage is divided into two operating regimes which named transient operating regime and steady operating regime respectively. The fuzzy PD controller is employed in transient operating regime for increasing response, reducing overshoot and shorting transition time. And conventional PI controller is used to improve the stable accuracy in steady operating regime. The global controller is achieved by fuzzy blending of all local controllers. Routh stability criterion is utilized to obtain the stability condition of closed-loop system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Production for international trade has
played an important role in driving the rapid increase of Chinese CO_{2} emissions. This paper uses input-output analysis to quantitatively estimate the
effect of the bilateral trade between China and its present largest trading
partner, the European Union (EU), on both national and global CO_{2} emissions. The results show that under the bilateral trade, China’s emissions
from 2002 to 2008 increased by 2458 MMT (6.64%), and the EU’s emissions
decreased by 539 MMT (1.81%). From a global perspective, the trade led to an
increase of 1919 MMT CO_{2} in the world’s total emissions. The trading
pattern is not dominated by pollution haven effect but by the comparative
advantages in factor endowments. It is suggested that a consumer
responsibility-based accounting system of national CO_{2} inventory
should be introduced in replace of the present producer responsibility-based one.
In order to achieve cost efficiency in emissions reduction in the new
accounting system, more CDM programs could be established.

Abstract:
We have developed an algorithm that can exhaustively enumerate the microstates of a molecular network of small copy numbers under the condition that the net gain in newly synthesized molecules is smaller than a predefined limit. We also describe a simple method for computing the exact mean or steady state landscape probability distribution over microstates. We show how the full landscape probability for the gene networks of the self-regulating gene and the toggle-switch in the steady state can be fully characterized. We also give an example using the MAPK cascade network. Data and server will be available at URL: http://scsb.sjtu.edu.cn/statespace webcite.Our algorithm works for networks of small copy numbers buffered with a finite copy number of net molecules that can be synthesized, regardless of the reaction stoichiometry, and is optimal in both storage and time complexity. The algorithm can also be used to calculate the rates of all transitions between microstates from given reactions and reaction rates. The buffer size is limited by the available memory or disk storage. Our algorithm is applicable to a class of biological networks when the copy numbers of molecules are small and the network is closed, or the network is open but the net gain in newly synthesized molecules does not exceed a predefined buffer capacity. For these networks, our method allows full stochastic characterization of the mean landscape probability distribution, and the steady state when it exists.Networks of interacting biomolecules are at the heart of the regulation of cellular processes, and stochasticity plays important roles in many networks, including those responsible for gene regulation, protein synthesis, and signal transduction [1-5]. The stochasticity originates intrinsically from the small copy numbers of the molecular species in a cell, which frequently occur when molecular concentrations are in the range of 0.1 μM to 1nM (typically from about 100 to 10 copies in a cell) [2,6].

Abstract:
The problem of analytically pricing the discrete monitored European barrier options is studied under the assumption of the Black-Scholes market. First, using variable transformation, the mean vector and covariance matrix of multi-dimensional marginal distribution are given. Secondly, the analytical pricing formulas of the discrete monitored up-knock-out European call option and the discrete monitored down-knock-out European put option are obtained by using the conditional probability and the characteristics of the multi-dimensional normal distribution. Finally, the effects of the discrete monitoring barriers on the prices of the barrier options are discussed and analyzed. The research results state that the price of the discrete monitored up-knock-out European call option increases with the increase in the up barrier, and the price of the discrete monitored down-knock-out European put option decreases with the increase in the down barrier.

Abstract:
Facing the exciting trend of library digitization, this article calmly analyzed the problems, difficulties, and the restrictions in this area. It also clarified the confusing concepts. It claimed that in China there is still a long way to go in transferring the libraries into modern and digital media center.

Abstract:
Built on the integral formulas in Part I, numerical methods are developed for computing velocity potential and streamfunction in a limited domain. When there is no inner boundary (around a data hole) inside the domain, the total solution is the sum of the internally and externally induced parts. For the internally induced part, three numerical schemes (grid-staggering, local-nesting and piecewise continuous integration) are designed to deal with the singularity of the Green's function encountered in numerical calculations. For the externally induced part, by setting the velocity potential (or streamfunction) component to zero, the other component of the solution can be computed in two ways: (1) Solve for the density function from its boundary integral equation and then construct the solution from the boundary integral of the density function. (2) Use the Cauchy integral to construct the solution directly. The boundary integral can be discretized on a uniform grid along the boundary. By using local-nesting (or piecewise continuous integration), the scheme is refined to enhance the discretization accuracy of the boundary integral around each corner point (or along the entire boundary). When the domain is not free of data holes, the total solution contains a data-hole--induced part, and the Cauchy integral method is extended to construct the externally induced solution with irregular external and internal boundaries. An automated algorithm is designed to facilitate the integrations along the irregular external and internal boundaries. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of each scheme relative to others.

Abstract:
The non-uniqueness of solution and compatibility between the coupled boundary conditions in computing velocity potential and streamfunction from horizontal velocity in a limited domain of arbitrary shape are revisited theoretically with rigorous mathematic treatments. Classic integral formulas and their variants are used to formulate solutions for the coupled problems. In the absence of data holes, the total solution is the sum of two integral solutions. One is the internally induced solution produced purely and uniquely by the domain internal divergence and vorticity, and its two components (velocity potential and streamfunction) can be constructed by applying Green's function for Poisson equation in unbounded domain to the divergence and vorticity inside the domain. The other is the externally induced solution produced purely but non-uniquely by the domain external divergence and vorticity, and the non-uniqueness is caused by the harmonic nature of the solution and the unknown divergence and vorticity distributions outside the domain. By setting either the velocity potential (or streamfunction) component to zero, the other component of the externally induced solution can be expressed by the imaginary (or real) part of the Cauchy integral constructed using the coupled boundary conditions and solvability conditions that exclude the internally induced solution. The streamfunction (or velocity potential) for the externally induced solution can also be expressed by the boundary integral of a double-layer (or single-layer) density function. In the presence of data holes, the total solution includes a data-hole--induced solution in addition to the above internally and externally induced solutions.

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the effects of catechin on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) content and microvessel density (MVD) in renal tissues of 5/6 nephrectomized rats.Methods: Sixty SD rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, untreated group and catechin group. Animal model was reproduced by 5/6 nephrectomy. After 8- and 12-week administration, rats were sacrificed. Renal MVD was measured by immunohistochemical method with CD34 marking. Activities of ACE in plasma and renal cortices were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometer, and Ang Ⅱ contents in plasma and renal cortices were measured by radioimmunoassay. Glomerular sclerosis index (GSI) and tubule interstitial score (TIS) were calculated by semiquantitative integration with hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining.Results: After 8- and 12-week administration, the GSI and TIS in the catechin group were much less than those in the untreated group (P<0.05, P<0.01). MVDs around glomerulus and tubule at the end of the 8th and 12th week in the untreated group and the catechin group were much less than those in the sham-operated group (P<0.01). The ACE activities and Ang Ⅱcontents in plasma and renal cortices in the catechin group were much less than those in the untreated group (P<0.01). By Pearson correlation analysis, we found that MVD had negative correlation with GSI, TIS, Ang Ⅱ content, and ACE activity(P<0.01), however, the ACE activity and Ang Ⅱ content had positive correlation with GSI, TIS (P<0.01).Conclusion: Catechin can prevent the 5/6 nephrectomized rats from decreasing of MVD and inhibit the progress of glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting the activity of ACE and reducing the production of Ang Ⅱ.

Abstract:
We investigate quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying nonequilibrium quantum master equation. The drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, which leads to the large filling factor. We find that there always exists an optimal inter-dot tunneling that significantly enhances the photovoltaic current. The maximal output power will also be obtained around the optimal inter-dot tunneling. Moreover, the open circuit voltage approximately behaves as the product of the eigen-level gap and the Carnot efficiency. These results suggest a great potential for double quantum dots as efficient photovoltaic devices.

Abstract:
We investigate the microscopic mechanism of quantum energy transfer in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model. By developing a nonequilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation based on fluctuation decoupling, we dissect the energy transfer into multi-boson associated processes with even or odd parity. Based on this, we analytically evaluate the energy flux, which smoothly bridges the transfer dynamics from the weak spin-boson coupling regime to the strong-coupling one. Our analysis explains previous limiting predictions and provides a unified interpretation of several observations, including coherence-enhanced heat flux and absence of negative differential thermal conductance in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model. The results may find wide applications for the energy and information control in nanodevices.