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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31414 matches for " Cancer risk "
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Retrospective Analysis of Adjuvant Therapy in Intermediate and High Risk Endometrial Cancer Patients  [PDF]
Hanan E. Shafik, Salem H. Alshemmary, Mohamed Ashour
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.77057
Abstract: Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. The most significant prognostic factors are tumor stage, histological grade and type, depth of myometrial invasion, lympho-vascular space or nodal involvement. The optimal adjuvant therapy in high and intermediate risk endometrial cancer is still controversial. Aim of the work: Evaluating the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on prognosis of high and intermediate risk endometrial cancer. Patients and methods: Forty six patients with high and intermediate risk endometrial cancer presenting to Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy, and 18 patients underwent lymphadenectomy (39.1%). All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. According to GOG risk stratification, 28 patients (60.9%) were high risk, 6 (13%) high intermediate and 12 (26.1%) low intermediate. At the end of follow up period, 34.71% of patients relapsed, 21.71% locally and 13% systemic. Median PFS was 38.06 months(ms) (95% CI 36.94 - 39.18 ms). There was a statistically significant effect of lympho-vascular space invasion (LVSI), grade and near statistically significant effect of patients age on PFS (p = 0.01, 0.05, 0.06 respectively). Median OS for all patients was not reached; estimated survival at 3 years was 87.5%. There was no statistically significant effect of age, pathological subtype, grade, LVSI on survival (p = 0.35, 0.95, 0.53 and 0.09 respectively). On stratifying patients into high and intermediate risk based on GOG risk stratification, there was a statistically significant difference on PFS and near statistically significant difference on OS between those groups (p = 0.02 and 0.09 respectively). Conclusion: The most effective adjuvant treatment regimen for patients with intermediate and high risk endometrial cancer is still an area of controversy. Sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy is both efficacious and well tolerated. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are necessary in the future.
Presence of Risk Factors and Co-Factors for Acquiring HPV Infection or Cervical Cancer in Women Living in a Rural Area and an Urban  [PDF]
Terán-Figueroa Yolanda, Canúas-Landero Víctor Gabriel, Ramírez-Flores élfego, Hernández-Madrigal Mónica, Gallegos-García Verónica, Gutiérrez-Enríquez Sandra Olimpia
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.68088
Abstract: Objective: Identify the presence of some risk factors and co-factors for acquiring HPV (human papilloma virus) or cervical cancer in women from a rural area and an urban area. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 in the State of San Luis Potosí, México. Sampling of non-probabilistic convenience was applied. 99 women participated (73 from urban area and 26 rural). Two surveys were used to identify risk factors and socio-demographic data. All women underwent HPV testing; the samples were self-collected and processed by the Hybrid Capture II method?. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Results: The predominant age range was 37 to 42 years. 38.5% is in a rural community and an urban 37.3%. 72.6% began their sexual life at 19 years or more in urban areas and 57.6% before 18 in rural areas. In relation to the number of sexual partners reported having had only one, 73.1% and 67.1% in rural and urban area respectively. Risk factors that were associated with HPV infection were the beginning of sexual activity at age 18 and under (p = 0.041) and the number of sexual partners (p = 0.001). Conclusions: There are more risk factors in women in urban areas but in rural areas it had the highest percentage of positive cases for infection by high-risk HPV.
Health Risk Assessment for Bromate (BrO3) Traces in Ozonated Indian Bottled Water  [PDF]
Ajay Kumar, Sabyasachi Rout, R.K. Singhal
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25066
Abstract: For this study, bromide and bromate ions in various commercial brands of Indian bottled water samples were estimated using ion chromatography. The measured mean concentration of bromide and bromate ions in water samples was found to be 28.13 µg/L and 11.17 µg/L respectively. The average level of bromate in Indian bottled water was found to be slightly higher (~ 12%) than the acceptable limits (10 µg/L) recommended by USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Though, kinetically, it is predicted that 62.5% (6.25 µg/L) of bromide in bottled water is needed to convert into bromate upon ozonation to exceed the minimum acceptable limits, but the average formation of bromate determined to be only 26.77% of the predicted concentration. Bromate concentration in bottled water showed a strong correlation with bromide suggesting that its formation in water is very much influenced and controlled by bromide content. The objective of the present study was to determine the BrO3) content of commercially available different brands of bottled drinking water in India and to estimate the health risks to population due to ingestion. Results of estimated excess cancer risk and chemical toxicity risk to Indian population due to ingestion of bottled water were presented and discussed.
Fuzzy Modelling for Predicting the Risk of Recurrence and Progression of Superficial Bladder Tumors  [PDF]
Laércio L. Vendite, Kenia D. Savergnini, Ubirajara Ferreira, Wagner E. Matheus
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.910074
Nowadays, bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in adults and the second most frequent urogenital tumor. Predicting recurrence and progression of superficial bladder tumors, with available clinical information to decide the therapy to be used is a difficult task. In this work, two mathematical models were developed to help specialists on the decision process. The mathematical tool used to formulate the model was the fuzzy sets theory, due to its capacity in dealing with uncertainties inherent in medical concepts. In the first model, Stage, Grade and Size of the tumor were also considered input variables and Risk of Recurrence of a superficial bladder tumor as output variable of the first Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems (FRBS). In the second model, in addition to the Stage, Grade and Size of the tumor, it was also considered as input variable of a second FRBS Carcinoma in situ and, the Risk of Progression of superficial tumors as an output variable. For each model, simulations were made with data originated from of patients of the Clinics Hospital/ UNICAMP and A. C. Camargo Hospital of São Paulo, with the aim to verify the reliability of results generated by the two systems. From a database and the possibility found by FRBS, after the possibility-probability transformation, we can generate the real probability of each fuzzy output set.
High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and the Risk of Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Gregory P. Swanson, A. Taylor Kingman, Courtney N. Shaver, Yolanda Munoz Maldonado, T. Phillip Reilly
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2018.83008
Abstract: Introduction: High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HGPIN) was originally thought to be a cancer precursor, but subsequent data has questioned its prognostic significance. We analyzed a large cohort of men diagnosed with HGPIN for subsequent occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods: From 2001 to 2011, we identified 567 men with isolated HGPIN and followed them for subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer. Results: Two hundred and five patients were followed (median 5.9 years) without biopsy and remained clinically free of prostate cancer. The remaining 362 men underwent repeat biopsies and 133 (37%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The number of cores of HGPIN and whether they were unilateral or bilateral was not predictive for subsequent diagnosis of cancer. Prostate specific antigen was the only statistically significant predictor for prostate cancer. Conclusions: We found the incidence of cancer after a diagnosis of HGPIN to be 37%, which is consistent with other published series. This is only marginally higher than in patients re-biopsied after a prior benign biopsy. It appears that isolated HGPIN has only a small predictive value for subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer. Therefore the finding of HGPIN should be used only in conjunction with other risk factors and patient considerations in deciding whether to proceed with further prostate biopsies.
Current patterns of the sun protection measures adopted by nurses and the risk factors influencing their compliance  [PDF]
Hero Brokalaki, Evridiki Patelarou, Constantine Vardavas, Ioannis S. Elefsiniotis, Konstantinos A. Giakoumidakis, Eirini Brokalaki
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2011.13006
Abstract: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. Included in high risk group are people who have light common phenotypic factors (hair, skin, eyes), have high number of naevi, report previous sunburns and have a family history of skin cancer. Protecting the skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen and avoiding sun exposure are recommended among primary preventive activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the current patterns of sun protection measures adopted by nurses and to examine the association between compliance with sun protection measures and the main risk factors of melanoma. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2007 during the Annual Greek National Conference of Nursing. Nurses most commonly chose to use sunscreen, to wear glasses, to use an umbrella or to seek for shade in order to protect themselves against sun exposure. Finally, phenotypic factors, previous sunburns and common naevi presence were found to affect nurses’ attitude towards protective measures. This study poses the necessity of targeting high risk groups for melanoma through campaigns aiming to foster sun protection behaviours.
sTRAIL Serum Levels and TRAIL 1595 Genotypes: Associations with Progress and Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma  [PDF]
?lhan Yayl?m, Nazl? Ezgi Ozkan, Saime Turan, Gurbet Korkmaz, Yemliha Y?ld?z, Canan Cacina, Bahar Topta?, Soykan Ar?kan
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.326120
Abstract: Programmed cell death called apoptosis, plays an important role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis and abnormalities in apoptotic function have been known as important events in the pathogenesis of many cancer types, such as colorectal cancer. It has been shown that both the membrane-bound TRAIL and sTRAIL can induce apoptosis in several tumor types by activating death receptors. Our study was to investigate the existence of TRAIL 1595 C/T SNP in colorectal cancer patients and possible effects of this substitution on serum levels of sTRAIL. In the present study, TRAIL 1595 C/T polymorphism was genotyped in 76 patients with colorectal cancer and 98 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. There were no significant differences in the distribution of TRAIL 1595 C/T genotypes and frequencies of the alleles between colorectal cancer patients and controls. The increased frequency of TRAIL 1595 homozygotes genotypes in patients who had advanced tumour stage was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). Serum sTRAIL levels in the colorectal patients with CT genotype were lower than those of patients with early tumor stage (p = 0.028). The decreased sTRAIL levels were observed in the patients with distant metastasis and CT genotype (p = 0.023). Our findings have suggested that TRAIL 1595 C/T genotypes and sTRAIL levels might be associated with the progression of colorectal cancer in Turkish population.
Assessment of cancer risk in two rural West Texas communities using anthropometrics, diet, and physical activity  [PDF]
Natalie Masis, Debra B. Reed, Barent N. McCool, Jamie A. Cooper, Conrad Lyford
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.33039

Cancer risks in the United States are linked to undesirable dietary and physical activity habits that may be more common in rural communities. This study assessed the cancer risk in two rural West Texas communities through anthropometrics, diet, and physical activity measures (n = 374). No significant relationships were found between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages; however, data showed significant negative associations between BMI and WC and physical activity. Over 58% of the sample was unaware of the link between obesity and cancer risk. Further evaluation of cancer risk in rural communities is needed to develop effective interventions and reduce health disparities.

The Role of Hyperinsulenemia as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer  [PDF]
Giuseppe Preziosi, Jude A. Oben, Giuseppe Fusai
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.410175

Background: Pancreatic cancer is associated with a very severe prognosis and identification of risk factors is essential. Diabetes and obesity are both established risk factors, and they both cause hyperinsulenemia. With this review we wished to appraise the evidence of a role of high insulin levels in causing pancreatic cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Medline, and all evidence on potential pathophysiology of hyperinsulenemia and pancreatic cancer was included. Metaand pooled-analysis on epidemiological evidence are reported, and individual studies were as appropriate for specific topics (role of therapies, central adiposity and role of physical exercise). Conclusion: Hyperinsulenemia, and possibly hyperestrogenism secondary to a metabolic syndrome, are important elements in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. Modification of certain life-style factors (exercise and weight loss) appears to modify the risk of pancreatic malignancy.

Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among female undergraduates in university of Nigeria Enugu campus  [PDF]
Peace Iheanacho, Afam Ndu, Amaka Doris Emenike
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31019
Breast cancer patients generally have low rates of survival due to being diagnosed at advanced stages raising critical issues about prevention and avoidance of risk factors. Breast self examination makes women more “breast aware”, which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. In Nigeria, the statistics of breast cancer have overtaken cancer of the cervix to become the commonest malignancy in women. This study was carried out to determine the awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among female students of the University of Nigeria Enugu Campus. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was all the female students that reside in hostels in the campus (2400) in number. A sample of 240 students was selected using quota sampling technique. Structured questionnaires based on the research objectives were used for data collection. The results of the study showed that most of the students have little knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and majority of the students do not practice BSE monthly. It was recommended that there should be regular organization of seminars and workshops for students to address sensitive topics like breast cancer risk factors and breast self examination.
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