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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17542 matches for " Campbell-Tofte JI "
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Harnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents
Campbell-Tofte JI, M lgaard P, Winther K
Botanics: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BTAT.S17302
Abstract: rnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents Review (1726) Total Article Views Authors: Campbell-Tofte JI, M lgaard P, Winther K Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 7 - 19 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/BTAT.S17302 Received: 24 January 2012 Accepted: 23 April 2012 Published: 22 August 2012 Joan IA Campbell-Tofte,1 Per M lgaard,2 Kaj Winther1 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder arising from complex interactions between multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. The characteristic high blood sugar levels result from either lack of the hormone insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D), or because body tissues do not respond to the hormone (type 2 diabetes, T2D). T1D patients currently need exogenous insulin for life, while for T2D patients who do not respond to diet and exercise regimes, oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and sometimes insulin are administered to help keep their blood glucose as normal as possible. As neither the administration of insulin nor OADs is curative, many patients develop tissue degenerative processes that result in life-threatening diabetes comorbidities. Several surveys of medicinal plants used as anti-diabetic agents amongst different peoples have been published. Some of this interest is driven by the ongoing diabetes pandemic coupled with the inadequacies associated with the current state of-the-art care and management of the syndrome. However, there is a huge cleft between traditional medicine and modern (Western) medicine, with the latter understandably demanding meaningful and scientific validation of anecdotal evidence for acceptance of the former. The main problems for clinical evaluation of medicinal plants with promising anti-diabetic properties reside both with the complexity of components of the plant materials and with the lack of full understanding of the diabetes disease etiology. This review is therefore focused on why research activities involving an integration of Systems Biology-based technologies of pharmacogenomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics with standard clinical data, should be used for cost-effective validation of the safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of promising medicinal plants. The application of such approaches to studying entire mixtures of plant materials will ensure proper elucidation of novel therapies with improved mechanisms of action, as well as facilitate a personalized clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents.
Rose Hip Powder That Contains the Natural Amount of Shells and Seeds Alleviates Pain in Osteoarthritis of the Dominant Hand—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial  [PDF]
Kaj Winther, Joan Campbell-Tofte, Peter Hansen
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2013.33027
Abstract: Aim: A standardized preparation of seeds and shells of selected sub-species of Rosa canina L, trade name Hyben Vital, reduces discomfort from osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. This study aims to investigate the impact of the same rose-hip powder (RHP) on discomfort and the consumption of rescue medication, in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods: The double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial included 30 patients with osteoarthritis of the dominant hand. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with either five gram encapsulated RHP or placebo, for three months (Phase 1), after which they switched to the corresponding treatment for a further three months period (Phase 2). Before entering the study, after 3 weeks and following three months of each of the study phases, scores for pain, stiffness and general feeling of discomfort were evaluated using a 10 step categorical scale, focusing on 16 different daily activities of the hand. The consumption of rescue medication was also calculated at the beginning and at the end of each study phase. Data are based on the intention to treat. Results: At the end of Phase 1, 90% of patients in the group receiving RHP first (group A), showed a reduction in pain, as compared to 36% in the group B initially given placebo (p < 0.029). In line with this observation, stiffness and the general feeling of discomfort from the disease declined during RHP treatment (p < 0.032). In group A, symptom reduction was still indicated by the study subjects 3 weeks after the switch to placebo. The consumption of rescue medication such as paracetamol, codeine and tramadol also declined significantly in group A when compared to group B (p < 0.013). Conclusion: The present data suggest that administration of RHP, containing seeds and shells can reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis of the hand and consumption of rescue medication.
Agency at Work: A Dynamic Interpretive Approach  [PDF]
Colin Campbell
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.24047
Abstract: Roy’s 1950s paper “Banana Time” is used as the basis for an exploration of the nature and relationship of agency and action. Roy’s activity in playing his “game of work” is shown to be a feature of individual conduct that, despite possessing subjective meaning, is largely neglected by contemporary sociologists, mainly because of its covert character. What an examination of this aspect of his conduct suggests is the need to revise the conventional observational approach to the definition of the unit act by recognising that there may well be an additional actor’s covert definition sitting within the accepted social definition and that it is therefore necessary to use the criterion of attentionality to identify the unit act. An analysis of Roy’s game of work also helps to shed light on the possible relationship between action and agency, revealing that while the power of agency enables individuals to act, it is also frequently necessary for individuals to act in order to maintain or restore their power of agency. Finally, a consideration of the function fulfilled by Roy’s game of work shows that a behaviourist-style stimulus-response analysis of conduct is not at odds either with voluntarism or the adoption of the actor’s standpoint. This is because Roy demonstrates how actors are themselves lay behaviourists, fully aware of how they need to manipulate stimuli in order to produce desired responses in themselves.
An Investigation of Academic Preparation 5 Students’ and Instructors’ Preference of ESL Writing Feedback  [PDF]
Madelaine Campbell
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.46014
Abstract: The study examines AP5 students’ and instructors’ attitudes toward ESL writing feedback. The survey research took place in the English Learning Centre (ELC) at Vancouver Island University (VIU) in the Spring of 2016. VIU is a small degree granting university located in Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island. The English Learning Centre is part of the Faculty of International Education, and ESL students come here to study pre-academic English language skills in order to become ready for their university courses. There are approximately 200 students enrolled in our ELC. The survey results showed an equal preference for typed and handwritten feedback, with female students preferring hand written, and other forms of feedback while male students prefer typed feedback. The instructors surveyed prefer giving feedback orally.
Postmodernism and Educational Research  [PDF]
Madelaine Campbell
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67006
Abstract: Postmodernism is an elusive concept when we attempt to connect it to educational research methodologies. This paper is a review of the literature regarding postmodernist research methodologies in education.
Using Story as Sites of Dialogue, Disillusionment, and Development of Dispositions to Support Inclusive Education  [PDF]
Michelann Parr, Terry Campbell
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.33054
Abstract: This article reports on an ongoing action research project regarding stories and dialogue that can be used as experiences of difference and diversity, and their impact on the classroom environment/community and the teacher. Over a period of ten years, the researchers have engaged a total of 2400 teacher candidates, through their language and literacy course, in a discussion of what it means to be different and how these values and attitudes impact what happens in the classroom. Using children’s literature as a starting point, teacher candidates are encouraged to make connections between read alouds, reader response, critical literacy, and how this ultimately transforms their knowledge, values, and zones of comfort in both the teacher education classroom and the regular classroom.
Investigation of a Flow Modulation System for Siphonic Roof Drainage Systems  [PDF]
David P. Campbell
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55055

Siphonic roof drainage systems (SRDSs) have been widespread used now for approximately 40 years and are an efficient method of removing rainwater rapidly from roofs. SRDSs are designed to run full-bore, resulting in sub-atmospheric system pressures with high hydraulic driving heads and higher system flow velocities than conventionally guttered systems. Hence, SRDSs normally require far fewer downpipes, and the depressurised conditions also mean that much of the collection pipework can be routed at a high level, thus reducing the extent of any underground pipework. But, they work properly at only one roof run-off rate and therefore suffer from sizing and operational problems including noise and vibration which limit their performance and adoption rate. Climate change is creating situations where normal ranges of rainfall intensity are being frequently exceeded, so the typical:storm ratios (rTS) are large increasing. Current SRDSs typically operate within a small rTS range of 2. This may have an impact on the future uptake of SRDSs. This paper describes the development of a novel SRDS which includes a small mobile cap at the roof of outlet appears to offer benefits and avoids sizing problems associated with current SRDSs. The cap has the potential to avoid noise associated with making and breaking siphonic action through flow modulation. Laboratory scale tests demonstrate the basic feasibility of the cap system and indicate that the cap functions reliably. This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Basic on sizing and design optimiza-

An Efficiency Wage—Imperfect Information Model of the Phillips Curve  [PDF]
Carl M. Campbell III
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.52004
Abstract: This study develops an efficiency wage model in which workers have imperfect information about wages elsewhere. Firms’ profit-maximizing behavior results in a Phillips curve relationship. Three types of Phillips curves are derived: a wage-wage Phillips curve, a wage-price Phillips curve, and a price-price Phillips curve. The wage-wage Phillips curve is a reduced form relationship with the coefficient on lagged wage inflation equaling 1. To obtain the wage-price and the price-price Phillips curves, stochastic shocks to the growth rate of demand are modeled, yielding expressions over time for wage inflation, price inflation, and unemployment. These expressions are used in a regression of current wage or price inflation on unemployment and lagged price inflation, and it is demonstrated that the coefficient on lagged inflation asymptotically approaches 1. In addition, the model predicts that real wages are strictly procyclical in response to technology shocks, but can be either procyclical, acyclical, or countercyclical in response to demand shocks. Thus, this study can explain why economists have reached different conclusions about the cyclical behavior of real wages.
Interrogating the architecture of cancer genomes
Peter Campbell
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-s1-i4
Cavitation During Superplastic Forming
John Campbell
Materials , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ma4071271
Abstract: Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically ( i.e., from the outside) during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic?behaviour.
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