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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9291 matches for " Calixte Clérisme "
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Post-conflict transition and HIV
Manuel Carballo,Calixte Clérisme,Benjamin Harris,Patrick Kayembe
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: Research in Bosnia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti and Liberia has highlighted worrying neglect of HIV issues in the aftermath of conflict and displacement.
Variation of the Consumption of Mushrooms by Pygmies and Bantus in the North of Gabon  [PDF]
Hugues Calixte Eyi Ndong, Steeve Mounguengui, Christiane Attéké, Geraldine Obone Ndong
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.416131
Abstract: A comparative study of the number of taxa and fungal biomass consumed by the Pygmies and the Bantus of Gabon has been realized in two Gabon north regions (Ogooue-Ivindo and the Woleu-Ntem). This study has allowed not only to establish the list of consumed fungal sorts by those populations, but also to estimate the daily consumed fungal biomasses by each ethnical group. The study has revealed a significant difference between a numbers of taxa and the quantity of mushrooms consumed by various ethnical groups: the Pygmies of the area who live especially by hunting and fishing consumed 96% of the recorded taxa with some high mushrooms quantities (around 3 kg/day/family); the Bantus who live nearby Pygmies also consumed some high mushrooms quantities (around 2 kg/day/family) but a low taxa number (56% of taxa counted by the Fang; 69% by the Kota; 39% by the Kwele); on the other hand, the Bantus living nearest the Pygmies consumed a high taxa number as much as Pygmies (around 90% of taxa counted) but eat a lower mushrooms quantities than theirs distant congeners Pygmies (around 800 g/day/family).
Impact of Therapeutic Education on the Viral Load of HIV Infected Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy at the Douala Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon  [PDF]
Calixte Ida Penda, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Serge Clotaire Bilong, Loic-Ardin Boupda, Cécile Okala, Francis Atéba Ndongo, Grace Dallé Ngondi, Else C. Moukoko Eboumbou, Louis Richard Njock, Olivier Koki Ndombo
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2019.103011
Abstract: Introduction: One of the biggest challenges for HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the long-term maintenance of viral suppression, which is the third 90% goal of UNAIDS. Therapeutic Education (TE), process of acquiring abilities and skills that help the patient to live optimally with his illness is one of the strategies that contribute to the achievement of viral suppression through the therapeutic adhesion contract and the follow-up of the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of TE on the virologic response of children and adolescents aged 8 - 19 under ART and followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital of Douala (LHD). Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pediatric Unit of the HIV/AIDS Accredited Treatment Center (ATC) at LHD from February to May 2016. Children and adolescents aged 8 to 19 years on ART, followed in ATC/LHD whose parents had agreed to participate in the study, and who had achieved at least one viral load before and after initiation of TE, were recruited consecutively during routine medical follow-up. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and questionnaires administered to study participants. Results: A total of 198 children and adolescents were included in this study with an average age of 14 years (±3). In this study population, 86.1% of children aged 8 - 10 years had acquired knowledge of the importance of taking medications, 95.4% and 97.3% of adolescents aged 11 - 14 years and 15 - 19 years had knowledge of medication schedules respectively. Among children and adolescents with undetectable viral load prior to initiation of TE, 76.5% maintained an undetectable viral load after initiation of TE. In addition, 72.3% of those whose viral load was detectable before initiation of TE had acquired an undetectable or decreasing viral load after initiation of TE. The only exposure factor significantly associated with maintaining undetectable viral load after initiation of TE was having less than 10 TE sessions (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The virologic response appears to be better in subjects who acquire skills faster through TE and therefore require fewer learning sessions to adapt. In addition, TE effectively contributes to achieving the third 90% goal of UNAIDS.
Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats
Souleymane Méité, Calixte Bahi, Dodéhé Yéo, Jacques Y Datté, Joseph A Djaman, David J N'guessan
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-7
Abstract: Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate) while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion.Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.), produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o). The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant increase (p < 0.01) of intestinal transit in comparison with castor oil (2 mL) (p < 0.01). Moreover, the extract induced a significant enteropooling and excretion of Cl-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p < 0.01).The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.Constipation is a highly prevalent, often chronic gastrointestinal disorder that affects adults [1-3]. The treatment with classic drugs did not cut, in one hand with the inadequate relief of bloating and other symptoms, and with the lack of efficacy in relieving constipation. So far, half of patients were not satisfied with the effect of laxatives on improving quality of life [4,5].Plants have long been a very important source of drugs against several diseases including constipation. Mareya micrantha is well known in the traditional medical practice
In Vitro Anticholinesterase and Inhibitory Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) Leaf on Rabbit Breathing
Y Dodehe, K Ernest, BA dit Philipp, T Antoine, B Calixte, M Souleymane, D Joseph, G-G Frédéri
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: In previous studies, the aqueous extract of Combretum molle was shown to inhibit disturbances of breathing induced by acetylcholine. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. Methods: The aqueous extract of Combretum molle and an anti-asthmatic, salbutamol (reference), were tested at varying concentrations for their inhibitory effects on breathing. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was extracted from rabbit duodenum and its activity determined by Ellman’s assay using acethylthiocholine iodide (ACTH) as substrate. The rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholinesterase was spectrophotometrically monitored at 412 nm. Results: The results indicate that in the presence of C. molle extract, a considerable reduction in the variation of breathing amplitudes occurred. Furthermore, the extract probably contains anti-AChE substances. C. molle exerted non-competitive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with Michaelis-Menten constant (KM) of 192 μM and velocity at maximal concentration of substrate (Vmax) of 4444 μM/min. Conclusion: These results support the use of C. molle leaf in the Pharmacopoeia of Ivory Coast as an anti-asthmatic, in view of its inhibitory effect on breathing disturbances.
Hematological Profile and Risk Factors of Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Descriptive and Analytical Study in Douala Cameroon  [PDF]
Essome Henri, Mve Koh Valere, Esuh Esong Lucas, Penda Ida Calixte, Claudia Melioge Ngalame, Tocki Toutou Grace, Albert Same Ekobo, Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.97094
Abstract: During pregnancy, the hematological system undergoes numerous changes so as to meet up with the demands of the developing fetus and placenta, with major alterations in blood volume and this differs with women from different regions. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the hematological parameters and risk factors for anemia among pregnant women according to different trimesters of pregnancy in Douala, Cameroon. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017, and all pregnant women who attended antenatal visits during our study period and who suited our inclusion criteria were recruited. The study was carried out in the antenatal care Unit of the Douala Laquintinie Hospital (DLH). A pretested questionnaire was used for the necessary data collection. Venous blood was collected from each of these women to perform a Complete Blood Count (CBC) test using an automated hematological analyzer (URIT 3010). Data were analyzed using XLSTAT 2007 and Stata version 11 software. Results: The mean age of the participants was 28 (SD = 5 years). The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 22% with a majority (18.4%) of these women being mildly anemic. Mean Hemoglobin values were significantly higher among women in first trimester compared to the third (12.1 ± 0.9 g/dl vs 11.8 ± 1.3 g/dl; p = 0.043). There was also a significant change in mean hematocrit (HCT) values between the first and second trimester (32.8% ± 2.5% vs 31.4% ± 2.9%, p = 0.004) and between the first and third trimester (32.8% ± 2.5% vs 30.8% ± 3.5%, p < 10-4). RBC count value was higher in the first trimester than in the second trimester (3.7 ± 0.3 × 1012/L vs 3.5 ± 0.4 × 1012/L, p < 10-4) and in the third trimester (3.7 ± 0.3 × 1012/L vs 3.5 ± 0.4 × 1012/L, p = 0.001). After a multivariate analysis, the following categories of women had more odds of developing anemia; women between the age range of 30 - 35 (OR = 2.81, 95%CI: 1.16 - 6.81, p = 0.023), women in the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 2.20, 95%CI: 0.88 - 5.48, p = 0.024), women with blood group O (OR = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.41 - 16.66, p = 0.012). Conclusion: This study confirms significant variations in hematological parameters. The findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Cameroon. It also helps us understand that, third trimester, age range 30 - 35, and blood group may be potential risk factors associated with anemia in pregnancy
When the Mind Affects the Heart  [PDF]
Cláudio Garcia Capit?o
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.616210
Abstract: This article aims to theoretically discuss the relationship between psychosomatic symptoms and heart diseases. It was used, as research technique, the narrative literature review, unsystematic, which consisted in presenting an open theme. Many authors point out the influence of the mind over the body—especially through emotions, psychic conflicts, stress—as responsible for, or adjuvants in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases. Emotions are acute emotional reactions triggered by external or internal stimuli, usually accompanied by neurodegenerative, visceral, hormonal and vascular somatic reactions. The conclusion is that heart diseases are multidetermined, influenced by environmental, organic and psychodynamic conditions.
Changes in Personality Caused by Neurocysticercosis  [PDF]
Cláudio Garcia Capit?o
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.71011
Abstract: This article aims to discuss theoretically changes in personality aspects caused by neurocysticercosis. An unsystematic narrative literature review aiming to present an open issue was used as research technique. Neurocysticercosis is a disease whose infestation usually depends on poor hygienic, health and education conditions. The infested patient has a lower self-esteem in addition to numerous psychological, medical and social consequences. It directly affects the ego, weakening the personality in its structure, which may cause a significant social and occupational deterioration or a deterioration of other important aspects of life.
Plant-to-plant horizontal gene transfer
CL Bishop
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030710-01
Abstract: Bergthorsson et al. surveyed the mitochondrial gene content of a number of angiosperms and found distribution anomalies. Phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes - rps2 and rps11 - resulted in the identification of four cases of plant-to-plant HGT, suggesting that the frequency of HGT is significant. The authors also suggest that previous placements of the atp1 gene should be reclassed as an HGT event. Expression analysis of Sanguinaria indicated that the rps11 RNA is probably functional and that the atp1 gene of Amborella is transcribed and edited. Using molecular-clock - based divergence times, the age of each transfer was also estimated."These results establish for the first time that conventional genes are subject to evolutionarily frequent HGT during plant evolution and provide the first unambiguous evidence that plants can donate DNA horizontally to other plants. This is also the best evidence that eukaryotic genomes regularly acquire genes by means of horizontal events that are relatively recent, datable and definable as to donor and recipient," conclude the authors.
The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/mTOR pathway: new agents
CL Arteaga
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3007
Abstract: Class IA PI3K isoforms are heterodimeric lipid kinases that contain a p110 catalytic subunit and a p85 regulatory subunit. The three genes PIK3CA, PIK3CB, and PIK3CD encode the homologous p110α, p110β, and p110δ isozymes, respectively. Expression of p110δ is largely restricted to immune and hematopoietic cells, whereas p110α and p110β are ubiquitously expressed. p110α is essential for signaling and growth of tumors driven by PIK3CA mutations, RTKs, and/or mutant Ras, whereas p110β lies downstream of GPCRs and has been shown to mediate tumorigenesis in PTEN-deficient cells. PIK3CA mutations are the most commonly known genetic alterations of this pathway in cancer, where ≥80% occur within the helical (E542K and E545K) and kinase (H1047R) domains of p110α. Such mutations confer increased catalytic activity through different mechanisms, but both induce characteristics of cellular transformation including growth factor-independent and anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to anoikis.Several drugs targeting multiple levels of the PI3K network (that is, PI3K, AKT, mTOR) have been developed. A number of ATP-mimetics that bind competitively and reversibly to the ATP-binding pocket of p110 are in early clinical development. These include the pan-PI3K inhibitors BKM120, XL-147, PX-866, PKI-587, and GDC-0941, the p110α-specific inhibitors BYL719, GDC-0032, and INK-1117, the p110δ-specific inhibitor CAL-101, and the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors BEZ235, BGT226, PF-4691502, GDC-0980, and XL-765. The pan-PI3K and p110α-specific inhibitors are equally potent against oncogenic p110α mutants. The rationale for the development of isozyme-specific antagonists is to allow higher doses of anti-p110α and anti-p110β drugs to be delivered without incurring side effects caused by pan-PI3K inhibitors. Interim results from a phase I trial with the p110δ-specific inhibitor CAL-101 in patients with hematologic malignancies showed that treatment reduced P-AKT levels >90% in peripheral blood ly
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