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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Calavera "
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Forjados: Estado de la cuestión
Calavera, J.
Informes de la Construccion , 1981,
Abstract: El campo de los forjados es uno de los que más problemas de calidad y seguridad se ha venido planteando desde muy antiguo en nuestro país. Es ya un tópico hacer referencia a esto y evidentemente la responsabilidad alcanza a casi todos los sectores de personas relacionados con la construcción y resultan sumamente escasas las actuaciones encaminadas a clarificar y solucionar el problema. En lo que sigue pasamos revista, con un cierto detalle, a los aspectos fundamentales de la cuestión, analizando la situación del problema y sus causas, sugiriendo algunos posibles caminos para remediar esa situación. No es necesario detallar la importancia del forjado en cuanto a su comportamiento estructural, la abundancia de la producción y la antigüedad de su uso. Todo ello debería haber conducido, a través de la experiencia acumulada y de las investigaciones que debieron haberse realizado, a una calidad y seguridad altas. La situación es exactamente la contraria y, exceptuando muy contados casos, la calidad de nuestros forjados oscila de mediocre a pésima.
Anclaje de barras en zapatas de hormigón
Calavera, J.
Informes de la Construccion , 2009,
Abstract: The paper analyzes the simplified rule for footing whereby the anchorage length is developed from a distance equal to 0,5 h, measured form the end of the footing. This simplification is based on the assumption that the footings involved are stiff, but Eurocode EC-2 fails to mention that fact, while Spanish code EHE-08 prescribe the rule for flexible footing. The value of the soil contact pressure σt notwithstanding, the shallower a footing is, the more economical. Consequently, for soils with σt ≤ 0,2 N/ mm2 the right solution could differs from the rules laid down in the above two standards. Se analiza la regla simplificada de suponer, que para zapatas, el desarrollo de la longitud de anclaje se cuenta a 0,5 h a partir del extremo de las barras, para la tensión .que tenga la barra en ese punto. Esta simplificación, está basada en la hipótesis de zapata rígida, pero el Eurocódico EC-2 no lo dice y la Instrucción EHE-08 la fija para zapatas flexibles. Como para todas las presiones σt de contacto con el suelo, la zapata más económica es la de menor canto posible, para suelos con σt ≤ 0,2 N/mm2 la solución correcta puede diferir notablemente de la regla establecida por ambas Normas.
Aspectos particulares del dise o de muros
Calavera, J.,Ley Urzaiz, J.
Informes de la Construccion , 1988,
Abstract: This paper deals about the difference between designing some parts of the retaining walls, multiplicand the actual loads and active confinement pressures by the appropiate load factors (the correct and mandatory method) and the obtaining the bearing pressures, and the design of those parts working with the bearing pressures obtained multiplicand the bearing pressures under service load conditions, by the load factor. The study shows the important difference between the results obtained by means of the two methods. A partir de la Instrucción EH-82, en el cálculo de los distintos elementos estructurales, lo que se ponderan por el coeficiente de seguridad y, no son los esfuerzos en dichos elementos, sino las acciones que dan lugar a ellos. Esta importante diferencia conceptual, en la mayoría de las estructuras que manejamos, no conduce a diferencias numéricas grandes entre los resultados obtenidos por uno u otro método. En el presente trabajo se muestra cómo en el caso de los muros, las diferencias son grandes y la variación del nivel de seguridad importante si se ponderan los esfuerzos y no las acciones.
Recomendaciones para el análisis de muros de sótano, sometidos a cargas verticales originadas por pilares de fachada
PE?A,A; CALAVERA,J; LLORENS,M;
Revista de la construcción , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-915X2011000200011
Abstract: in projects pertaining to basement walls in buildings, justification of only vertical batter and soffit reinforcements is quite habitual, the same by way of elastic calculation of the efforts generated by the soil's thrust action, external overloads and exterior water thrust to the building. analysis of the walls along their longitudinal plane, collecting loads at coronation and transmitting these to the soil through wall foundations, is hardly covered in technical literature and as a consequence the same does not appear in the calculation annexes of the projects. this is likewise the case with the local support effect of the pillars over the walls and interaction in accordance to the rigidity with regards to the different elements intervening in the problem, as is the case with the superstructure, basement wall, foundations and terrain, effects that are likewise not taken specifically into consideration in the calculations. all these analysis may give rise to supplementary reinforcement that is not contemplated in the projects, resulting in retraction and temperature reinforcement that is arranged for other reasons actually being in charge of absorbing these efforts that are not conventionally analysed in the projects. thus this investigation has been put forward with the idea of covering the void that exists in the design of basement walls, the same constituting mr. alvaro pe?a fritz' doctoral thesis (14), in which professor jose calavera ruiz has been his director and mr. manuel llorens alcon has acted as the counsellor, analysing the sensitivity of said walls in view of variation in the respective rigidity of the superstructure, basement wall and terrain, attempting to obtain practical tables and recommendations in order to determine the supplementary reinforcements that are necessary for these concepts.
Los Cuadernos INTEMAC
González Valle, Enrique,Calavera Vayá, Ana
Informes de la Construccion , 2008,
Abstract: Since ita s foundation in June 1967 the Technical Institute for Materials and Construction (INTEMAC) established the incentivation of technical training and the researching vocation of ita s staff as ita s goals. For the past eighteen years INTEMACa s quarterlies have represented the shaping of this spirit, for what the Institute has become well known in the building business. Covering more and more topics every year, the sixty-six titles which have been published until now have all been dedicated to a big variety of issues such as the pre-standardization, the creation of guides of practical application on specific subjects, pathology or the building works of a certain importance inside the national panorama. Trying to maintain, altogether, a certain balance between edification issues, civil construction and rehabilitation of already existing buildings. The publication of INTEMACa s quarterly has never stopped, with a three-month periodicity, programmed with a lot of anticipation, and a bilingual edition in Spanish and English, which is around 2500 copies nowadays. The following text tries to be a mirror of the evolution of this publication throughout time, with a few comments which will help the reader guess what we expect from the future days. Desde su fundación, en Junio de 1967, el Instituto Técnico de Materiales y Construcciones (INTEMAC) estableció como uno de sus objetivos la incentivación de la formación técnica y de la vocación investigadora de su plantilla. Durante los últimos dieciocho a os los Cuadernos INTEMAC han representado la plasmación de este espíritu, por el que el Instituto ha llegado a ser bien conocido en el mundo de la Construcción. Cubriendo campos cada vez más amplios, los 66 números publicados hasta ahora se han dedicado a asuntos tan variados como la pre-normativa, la creación de guías de aplicación práctica sobre temas concretos, la patología o las obras de una especial importancia y actualidad dentro del panorama nacional, todo ello intentando mantener un cierto equilibrio entre los temas de edificación, obra civil o de rehabilitación de obras ya existentes. A partir de su aparición, la publicación de los Cuadernos INTEMAC ha sido ininterrumpida, con una periodicidad trimestral programada con mucha anticipación y una tirada bilingüe en espa ol e inglés que actualmente es de 2500 ejemplares. El texto que sigue intenta ser un reflejo del discurrir de esta publicación a lo largo del tiempo, con unos breves comentarios que permitan adivinar al lector cómo esperamos que sea el tiempo por venir.
Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol
Salvador Pita Fernández, Sonia Pértega Díaz, Beatriz López Calvi?o, Paloma González Santamaría, Teresa Seoane Pillado, Francisco Arnal Monreal, Francesc Maciá, María Sánchez Calavera, Alejandro Espí Macías, Manuel Valladares Ayerbes, Alejandro Pazos, Margarita Reboredo López, Luis González Saez, María Ramos Montserrat, Josep Segura Noguera, Isabel Monreal Aliaga, Luis González Luján, María Martín Rabadán, Cristiane Murta Nascimento, Olga Pueyo, Marta Boscá Watts, Elena Cabeza Irigoyen, Montserrat Casmitjana Abella, Marina Pinilla, Ana Costa Alcaraz, Amador Ruiz Torrejón, Andrea Burón Pust, Concepción García Aranda, María de Lluc Bennasar, Sergio Lafita Mainz
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-528
Abstract: Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953).At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients.Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out.Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables.Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed.This study will make it possible to verify if the different components of delay have an impact on survival rate in colon cancer and rectal cancer. In consequence, this multi-centre study will be able to detect the variability present in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer, and if this variability modifies the prognosis. Ideally, this study could determine which follow-up strategies are associated with a better prognosis in colorectal cancer.In Spain, colorectal cancer is responsible for 12.6% of all deaths as a result of cancer in men, and 15.1% in women, according to data from 2007, repr
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