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Uso de teorías y modelos en artículos de una revista latinoamericana de salud pública, 2000-2004
Cabrera Arana,Gustavo Alonso;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000600011
Abstract: objective: to characterize frequency and type of use of theories or models on papers of a latin-american journal in public health between 2000 and 2004. methods: the revista de saúde pública was chosen because of its history of periodic publication without interruption and current impact on the scientific communication of the area. a standard procedure was applied for reading and classifying articles in an arbitrary typology of four levels, according to the depth of the use of models or theoretical references to describe problems or issues, to formulate methods and to discuss results. results: of 482 articles included, 421 (87%) were research studies, 42 (9%) reviews or special contributions and 19 (4%) opinion texts or assays . of 421 research studies, 286 (68%) had a quantitative focus, 110 (26%) qualitative and 25 (6%) mixed. reference to theories or models is uncommon, only 90 (19%) articles mentioned a theory or model. according to the depth of the use, 29 (6%) were classified as type i, 9 (2%) as type ii, 6 (1.3%) were type iii and the 46 remaining texts (9.5%) were type iv. conclusions: reference to models was nine-fold more frequent than the use of theoretical references. the ideal use, type iv, occurred in one of every ten articles studied. it is of relevance to show theoretical and models frames used when approaching topics, formulating hypothesis, designing methods and discussing findings in papers.
Creencias de hombres de Cali, Colombia, sobre el examen digital rectal: hallazgos de un estudio exploratorio
Lucumí-Cuesta, Diego Iván;Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo Alonso;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2005000500022
Abstract: this study used the health beliefs model to explore beliefs on digital rectal examination (dre) to screen for prostrate cancer, prior to intent to submit to the examination, in men 45 to 64 years of age in cali, colombia. the 267 participants answered a questionnaire by means of prior selection through proportional sampling by quotas. a univariate and bivariate analysis showed that only 25.8% of the participants had submitted previously to digital rectal examination and that 68.1% intended to do so in the following 12 months. significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between a history of dre and schooling, socioeconomic status, health system coverage, perception of susceptibility to the disease, and perception of barriers and benefits. significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between intent to submit to dre and health system coverage, perception of severity of the disease, and perception of barriers. given the low level of history of dre and intent to submit to the examination, the results could help improve strategies to increase this practice at the local level.
Creencias de hombres de Cali, Colombia, sobre el examen digital rectal: hallazgos de un estudio exploratorio
Lucumí-Cuesta Diego Iván,Cabrera-Arana Gustavo Alonso
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2005,
Abstract: Usando el Modelo de Creencias en Salud se exploraron creencias sobre el examen digital rectal como tamiz para cáncer en la próstata, antecedente e intención de práctica en hombres de 45 a 64 a os de edad de Cali, Colombia. A los 267 participantes se les aplicó un cuestionario, previa selección mediante muestreo proporcional por cuotas. Después de un análisis univariado y bivariado se estableció que sólo un 25,8% de los participantes se había sometido previamente al examen digital rectal y 68,1% tenía intención de hacerlo en los siguientes 12 meses. Diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) fueron halladas entre antecedente de práctica y nivel de escolaridad, estrato socioeconómico, afiliación al sistema de salud, percepción de susceptibilidad a la enfermedad, percepción de barreras y beneficios. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) entre intención de práctica y afiliación al sistema de salud, percepción de severidad de la enfermedad y percepción de barreras. Dado el bajo antecedente e intención de práctica del examen, los resultados podrían contribuir a mejorar las estrategias para incrementar su práctica a nivel local.
Base teórica en una muestra de investigaciones de la Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública-Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia 1965-2004
Cabrera Arana,Gustavo; Molina Marín,Gloria; Rodríguez Tejada,Claudia;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642005000100008
Abstract: objective: to provide evidence about the theoretical basis used in the studies carried out by students and lecturers of the undergraduate and postgraduate programs of the national school of public health "hector abad gómez" of the university of antioquia from 1965 to 2004. methods: an exploratory and descriptive study of a sample of research reports taken from a universe of 1 100 reports was carried out. a questionnaire was designed and tested, which was used to evaluate 190 research reports, in terms of the theories and models used as theoretical framework of these studies. results: most of the studies were carried out during the last 15 years. 51% of the studies were carried out by students of the specialization programs, 35% by undergraduate students, and 13% by the master degree students. the most predominant topics were: health management, 41%; epidemiology, 24%, and occupational health 21%. 21% of the research reports contain a theoretical basis or model, but only 2% includes a rigorous presentation of them in the theoretical framework and the discussion sections. conclusions: most of the studies were accomplished from 1990 to 2004, which is related to the greater offer of undergraduate and postgraduate programs. application of theories and models as the basis for building and guiding research has been limited, lower than it would be expected.
Validación de un Instrumento para Medir Calidad Percibida por Usuarios de Hospitales de Colombia
Cabrera- Arana,Gustavo A.; Londo?o- Pimienta,Jaime L.; Bello- Parías,León D.;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642008000300009
Abstract: objective validating an instrument for measuring the perceived quality of services received by people using hospitals forming part of the colombian ministry of social protection's restructuring, redesigning and modernisation programme for health-service providing networks. methods sánchez and echeverri's guidelines for validating health quality measurement scales were followed due to the lack of a valid instrument for doing this in colombia. results conceptual synthesis led to identifying a structure of constituent indicators, domains and sub-domains regarding the perception of health service quality. a list of reactions (having a scale for categorising the replies) was analysed according to the validity of appearance, construct, criteria and utility as criteria for sensitivity and usefulness. successive revisions and three rounds of field-trials led to producing pecasuss, an acronym given to the instrument for measuring users' perception of health service quality (percepción de calidad según usuarios de servicios de salud). conclusions the guidelines effectively orientated the validation of the instrument required for measuring the perceived quality of health services received by people using hospitals forming part of the programme.
Costos Familiares de Mantener y Abandonar la Lactancia Exclusiva en el Primer Mes Posparto
Girón-Vargas,Sandra L.; Mateus-Solarte,Julio C.; Cabrera-Arana,Gustavo A.;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642009000300008
Abstract: objective estimating the difference between direct and indirect family costs arising from women who continue exclusive breastfeeding and those who abandon it during the first postpartum month. methods a cost analysis was carried out on primiparous women from cali, colombia; they were recruited during their immediate puerpery and follow-up during the first 30 postpartum days. non-parametric bootstrap techniques were used for estimating average costs and differences for 0-8, 9-30 and 0-30 postpartum days regarding women who abandoned exclusive breastfeeding and those who did not. results women who abandoned exclusive breastfeeding assumed higher costs related to baby feeding while those who continued exclusive breastfeeding had higher food costs for the mother and in contracting domestic support. conclusion the savings which a woman and her family can make due to continuing with exclusive breastfeeding become negated by the mother's food-related costs. interventions should be designed which are orientated towards prolonging exclusive breastfeeding and modifying beliefs about nutrition which contribute towards generating economic consequences for families.
Desgaste emocional en docentes oficiales de Medellín, Colombia, 2005
Restrepo-Ayala,Nadia C; Colorado-Vargas,Gabriel O; Cabrera-Arana,Gustavo A;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642006000100006
Abstract: objetive exploring signs of emotional and physical weakness or burnout syndrome in qualified teachers in medellín, colombia, 2005. methods a cross-sectional study was applied to a random bi-stage sample of 239 teachers who filled in a questionnaire by themselves to explore demographic, work and social variables and dimensions of the burnout syndrome, according to the maslach burnout inventary (mbi). results the findings showed that 23,4 % of the sample presented signs of burnout and a further 23,4 % were at risk of suffering it; emotional weakness and depersonalisation were present in both subgroups. conclusions a relationship between burnout signs and some of the variables studied was found. it is suggested that personal, family and social variables potentially associated with the syndrome should be explored more deeply.
Calidad Percibida por Usuarios de Hospitales del Programa de Reestructuración de Redes de Servicios de Salud de Colombia
Cabrera-Arana,Gustavo A.; Bello-Parías,León D.; Londo?o-Pimienta,Jaime L.;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642008000400009
Abstract: objective establishing a quality base-line as perceived by hospital users, subject to intervention by the health-service restructuring, redesign and modernisation programme. method 4 021 users were interviewed face-to-face in august 2006 from a sample of hospitals from the programme using an instrument already validated for measuring health service users’ perception of quality (pecasuss). results the interviewees (38,7 % mean age, 70 % women, 60 % affiliated to the subsided system, 55 % from stratum 1 and 53 % attended in general consultation) scored mostly as good or very good 16 different aspects perceived of the quality of services. mean user quality score was 3,98 (0,8 sd) on a score ranging from 0,0 (bad) to 5,0 (excellent). conclusions quality was generally rated as good as perceived by people using the hospital programme. the humanised treatment received from the medical staff was given the highest score regarding quality of attention received by the interviewees.
Representando la complejidad ambiental: Dos estudios de caso
Investigación y Postgrado , 2007,
Abstract: undertaking the complexity of environmental systems as a thematic content leads to the application of pedagogical methods intended to the construction of mental models in students, which represent such complexity. in such sense, a learning strategy is necessary in order to asses the progress of students regarding the construction of their knowledge about the environment as well as their relationships, interpretations and transferences when applied to particular situations of reality. the main purpose of this research is studying the construction of a mental model about the environmental complexity, in order for students of the master?s degree in education, minor in teaching of biology of the universidad pedagógica experimental libertador (upel), to develop an integrating vision of the environmental systems dynamic through the application of a proposed conceptual model intended to specify the relationships and interactions occurring between the social and natural components in a specific space and derivating from such model performance. in executing this model, the activation of cognitive and metacognitive process was promoted due to its great relevance in the construction of the scientific concepts.
Entramados ambientales: Un modelo didáctico integrador
Educere , 2007,
Abstract: tackling the complexity of environmental systems as thematic content, leads to the implementation of pedagogical methods destined to building, in students, mental models that are representative of such complexity. in this sense, a teaching strategy is required that allows evidencing student progress regarding the building of their knowledge about environment, such as: relationships, interpretations and transfers it performs when they are applied in specific reality situations. the didactic model presented aims mainly to develop students of environmental education in the venezuelan educational context an integrative vision of the dynamics of environmental systems from an interpretative analysis of its complexity. with its implementation cognitive and metacognitive processes of special relevance were activated in the development of cognitive, procedural and attitudinal competences, for the understanding of environmental dynamics.
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