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Assessing the Influence of Global Climate and Anthropogenic Activities on the Water Balance of an Andean Lake  [PDF]
Julio Ca?ón, Juan Valdes
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.312098
Abstract: Tropical regions along the Andean Cordillera face an uncertain future as mountain lakes and snow peaks exhibit receding trends associated with factors such as climatic precursors and local anthropogenic activities. Tota, the largest mountain lake in the Colombian Andes, exemplifies the role played by these factors on the lake's hydrologic evolution. A monthly water balance in Tota Lake was performed using available hydrological information from 1958 to 2007 to address interannual and multiannual level fluctuations associated with human activities and climatic precursors. The balance shows that net water uses fluctuated around 2 m3/s during this period with a pattern that, although constrained during years of severe decline in lake levels, is able to explain most of the multiannual decaying trend of 1.5 cm/year in the last 50 years. The lake’s naturalized levels were used to determine the influence of climate precursors on the lake evolution. Using Multichannel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA), significant five-year ENSO and 20-year PDO related quasi-oscillations were detected, explaining 54% of the variance associated with mean annual naturalized level fluctuations. ENSO is markedly in-phase with lake levels, with critical declines associated with low precipitation and high evaporation rates during El Niño years, whereas the PDO signal exhibits a phase opposition with lake levels, with low naturalized levels during a positive PDO phase and high levels during a negative PDO phase (an important result to consider given the current cooling trend of the PDO signal).
Uso de la cámara de presión y los psicrómetros a termocupla en la determinación de las relaciones hídricas en tejidos vegetales
Phyton (Buenos Aires) , 2008,
Abstract: advantages, disadvantages and precautions of using the pressure chamber and thermocouple psychrometers for determinations of plant water potential, and osmotic and turgor pressures are discussed. comparison of results obtained with both instruments will be influenced by the sampling technique, consistency in both sampling and measurement procedures, and errors inherent to the method itself. in-situ readings of either plant or soil water potential with thermocouple psychrometers are perhaps worthless, or worse (they may even be misleading). use of thermocouple psychrometers is strictly limited to the laboratory where isothermal conditions can be obtained. the method to determine the water relations of plant tissues should be chosen according to the plant material and the research objectives.
Some Ondo Philosophical Proverbs for Practical Living
CA Akinmade
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Although proverbs play significant and varied roles among people of different cultures, their function as bearers of philosophical insights is particularly unique and amazing. Within the context of Ondo culture, proverbs reflect the people’s attempt not only at abstract thinking but also their depth of wisdom and the astuteness of their thoughts. In an attempt to explore and document how Ondo philosophical proverbs rouse the unseeing eye and alert the unheeding ear to the marvels of everyday realities, this paper conceptualizes philosophy and African philosophy, bringing to the fore how in Ondo society man abstracts on events, make generalizations, understands the behaviour of their gods, reflects the ethics of society and philosophizes concerning life and death, using proverbs as a primary strategy. In each of the examples cited, an attempt is made to couch the proverb in its original form. This is followed by its translation, theme, function and finally its application to daily living.
Figures of Association and Sound in some Nigerian Proverbs: Examples from Ondo Culture
CA Akinmade
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Figures of Speech are expressions which depart from the acceptable literary sense that are employed to give particular emphasis to an idea or a sentiment in order to beautify a literary work such as poetry and proverbs. These devices occupy an important position in proverbs and they perform functions which make the proverbs what they are, that is pithy, etaphorical and spicy expressions with which sayings are embellished. Figures of Speech are used by proverb coiners to express succinctly a multi-faceted concept in order to make a point in a more powerful and emphatic way.They are used to make speeches very memorable, colourful and appealing in order to achieve some stylistic effect. This paper examines the various figures of speech that are prevalent in some Ondo proverbs. The proverbs are documented in the original, translated and then analysed, pointing out the various poetic devices in them.
International haplotype mapping project
CA Adebamowo
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: No Abstract.
Biotechnology in animal science: Impact in Africa and issues related to biosafety
CA Hinson
African Crop Science Journal , 1995,
Air photo evidence of historical land cover change in the highlands: Wetlands and grasslands give way to crops and woodlots
CA Kull
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2012,
Abstract: Madagascar’s high plateau – where people farm, graze cattle, and set periodic fire in a grass dominated landscape – receives disproportionately little conservation attention. An aerial photograph-based analysis of land - cover change in the latter half of the 20th century, based on a stratified random sample of twenty eight sites, reveals dramatic trends associated with an increasing human population that is building a cultural landscape of villages and agro-ecosystems to assure its livelihoods. On average across the sample sites, about 23 % of grassland areas present in 1949–1950 were converted to crops fields, farm trees and built - up areas by the 1990s. Of all land - cover transitions, the most dramatic changes included the loss of approximately 60 % of wetlands and 37 % of riparian forests. These land covers, which are dispersed along the fine - grained dendritic stream network, are habitat for crayfish, frogs, and other fauna, yet are also prized locations in the rice - based Malagasy agricultural system. The results of this study suggest that attention be given to highland grassland, wetland and riparian forest ecosystem restoration and conservation; however, any on - the - ground initiatives should incorporate respect for local needs and allow sustainable use of these ecosystems, given their cultural and subsistence importance.
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes
CA Wright
Continuing Medical Education , 2012,
Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), when performed by trained operators, and for the correct indications, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure, with an excellent diagnostic yield.
Postoperative analgesia in children: getting it right
CA Lee
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2011,
Abstract: The management of postoperative pain in children has historically been poor, but advances have been made in the last decade. As pain is a complex phenomenon, a multimodal approach to treatment is required. This article aims to give a brief overview of the practical aspects of postoperative pain management in children, including non-opioid as well as opioid analgesics, and the salient features of regional anaesthesia. South Afr J Anaesth Analg, 2011;17(6)
Coral reef monitoring in Tanzania: an analysis of the last 20 years
CA Muhando
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2009,
Abstract: Abstract—Coral reef monitoring in Tanzania started in the early 1990s. The main objective was to document reef status and in places assess the extent of damage caused by the use of destructive resource harvesting practices, mainly fishing using dynamite and dragged nets. The information obtained formed the basis for setting up of legislation and control measures and for further monitoring of reef health. Two systems evolved: low tech or simple (skin diving) community-based coral reef monitoring and high tech involving the use of Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has contributed substantial descriptive information and has raised awareness to coastal communities and managers. Analysis of CRM data over the years has provided information on the dynamics of reef health conditions, e.g. cover and composition of reef benthos, fish and macro-invertebrates. Statistical Power Analysis tests, both on spatial and temporal scales showed inadequate coral monitoring sampling effort, mainly due to high variance of categories being measured. Furthermore, the ongoing monitoring programs did not include environmental or economic indicator variables, hence monitoring results were not linked or statistically analysed against possible causative factors. Lack of information on biological connectivity and vital replenishment factors, e.g., larval sources, dispersal mechanisms, growth, and survival also diluted the interpretation of benthic community data, directly impacting on the strategic management of reef fish and invertebrates. Similarly, the link between socio-economic attributes and coral monitoring results has remained weak. This paper discusses critical issues in the past coral reef monitoring programs and provides strategic recommendations for the next phase of coral reef monitoring in Tanzania.
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