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The concentration of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and organic material (OM) at sixty grid division in Lake Chaohu basin around the lake was studied, in order to investigate their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the average concentrations of TN, TP and OM were 1027 mg/kg, 483 mg/kg, 1.95%, and their concentrations ranged from 253 mg/kg to 2273 mg/kg, 223 mg/kg to 1173 mg/kg and 0.291% to 5.48%, respectively. The high concentration areas were located at the basins of Tuogao river and Zhao river while the low concentration areas were located at basins of Pai river, Nanfei river and Dianpu river. The concentrations of TN and OM were higher in East part than in West part. The spatial distribution of TN, TP and OM concentrations of the surface soil showed inconsistent with those of the water quality of the inflow rivers and the lake and the TN and TP of lake sediment studied.