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Design and Realization of a Digital FIR Filter

Modeling and Simulation (MOS) , 2013, DOI: 10.12677/MOS.2013.24009
A low-pass filter is designed under MATLAB environment in this paper by using the window function method. Simulation test and implement are finished under the CCS integrated development environment, and the details of realization process on the DSP chip are also presented. FDATool toolbox is also used for filter design so that the parameters can be changed at any time according to the design requirements, which will make the filter achieve the optimization.
Células somáticas no leite em rebanhos brasileiros
Machado Paulo Fernando,Pereira Alfredo Ribeiro,Silva Luís Felipe Prada e,Sarriés Gabriel Adrian
Scientia Agricola , 2000,
Abstract: No banco de dados do Laboratório de Fisiologia da Lacta o da ESALQ - USP, Piracicaba, SP, foi realizado um levantamento da contagem de células somáticas (CCS) de amostras de leite de tanques coletadas entre dezembro de 1996 a julho de 1998, com o objetivo de se caracterizar a situa o atual da sanidade da glandula mamária dos rebanhos. Os 7941 dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva. A média de CCS foi 641 mil cél. mL-1, sendo 767 mil cél. mL-1 o desvio padr o. Os dados de CCS foram transformados para log2 CCS e reanalizados. A nova média foi de 307 mil cél. mL-1, sendo que este valor representa melhor a média de CCS dos rebanhos, devido à característica exponencial da popula o de dados obtida. Os rebanhos foram distribuídos em classes de CCS. Foram encontradas as seguintes porcentagens da popula o: 26, 53, 71, 83, 89 e 93% com CCS abaixo de 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 e 1500 mil cél. mL-1 respectivamente. Os quartis das amostras analisada foram 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, 99 e 100% apresentando 244, 468, 815, 1302, 1797, 4099, 9223 mil cél. mL-1 respectivamente.
Using Carbon Capture and Storage CCS Techniques in Mulla Abdulla and Taza Power Plants to Mitigate the Impact of Climate Change
Sameer S. Mustafa,Fawzi M. Omar,Bilal A. Nasir
Energy Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.est.1923847920130501.708
Abstract: In the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), it was projected that the number of CO2 emission sources from the electric power and industrial sectors will increase significantly until 2050. Because fossil fuel-fired power plants are responsible for around one-third of total global CO2 emissions, they are prime candidates for the application of CO2 capture and storage techniques. The aim of this work is to mitigate the impact of climate change by reducing the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere in Mulla Abdulla and Taza power plants in Kirkuk/ Iraq using CCS techniques, and to calculate the cost of the system components.
Why There Will Be No Peak Coal in the Foreseeable Future  [PDF]
Thomas Thielemann, Hans-Wilhelm Schiffer
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.22006
Abstract: Hard coal and lignite—also referred to here jointly as coal—play a central role in the worldwide supply of humanity with primary energy. As a fossil energy carrier, coal is one of the finite natural resources. The reach of the world’s coal reserves is significant, and coal has the potential to cover some of the global energy and raw-material needs at least into the 22nd century. Precondition for this is a sustainable energy policy, i.e. an equal-ranking view of the goals of environmental and climate compatibility (sustainability), security of supply and competitiveness (affordability). The focus of developments is on resource efficiency and energy savings to obtain more modern and more efficient coal-based power plants. Greater use of coal translates into higher CO2 emissions. So if we are to achieve the climate-protection goals of limiting the rise in temperatures and reducing the CO2 content in the Earth’s atmosphere, the launch of CCS technology is recommended. Within the scope of the climate-protection debate, a discussion is also underway about an alleged drying up of coal availability in the short term (under the heading of “peak coal”). This discussion is an example of how, from the limited perspective of particular interests, a swathe of facts can be ignored. Hence, this article sets out to take a fact-based, sober look at the subject of the “reach of global coal reserves”. How much coal do we really have? And to what extent will coal be available tomorrow to guarantee secure and affordable energy supplies in the future as well? These issues will be investigated here.
Carbon Emission: Invalid Strategy and Ecological Rule  [PDF]
Li Zhou
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323011
Abstract: Carbon emission is a problem of global concern because it scares humanity’s living. While CCS (carbon capture and sequestration/storage) strategy received global attention, some scholars argued that the present warming is just a natural step in a long range periodic change of climate. Here we show that it isn’t a natural phenomenon, nor is something con- trollable by the CCS strategy. Carbon emission is governed by an ecological rule of the earth: global carbon emission is linearly correlated to the world population when the latter is larger than 1.3 × 109. Therefore, birth control is an essential component of low carbon economy.
Carbon Capture and Storage and the UNFCCC: Recommendations to Address Trans-Boundary Issues  [PDF]
Viviane Romeiro, Virginia Parente
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323017
Abstract: This paper is mainly focused on the eligibility of trans-boundary Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project activity and it aims to explore a broad range of CCS transboundary issues whereby the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and national governments could take into consideration. Much work is still to be done by the CCS community (including the Institute) to ensure that the implementation of CCS under the CDM is both environmentally effective and commercially attractive. The recommendations focus on technical issues, with the aim of helping Parties evaluate a robust strategy for CCS as part of international negotiations and establish CCS best practice criteria for governments and the international process, thereby enhancing transparency and ensuring that CCS deployment is safe and effective. When considering CDM projects activities with a transboundary component, it is recommend that the rules of the main international treaties related to CCS be considered by the UNFCCC, especially the London Protocol guidelines for risk assessment and management and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Additionally, national governments should apply the rules and guidelines as delineated under the relevant existing international treaties and CCS national regulations.
CCS Membrane Development at CIUDEN’s Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture  [PDF]
Jose A. Gutierrez Bravo
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.612001
Abstract: CO2 concentration to the atmosphere has risen faster than ever in the last century. This is highly due to fossil fuel combustion which is the major anthropogenic CO2 source. Membrane technology is an important alternative for reliability, flexibility and economically competitiveness for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) processes. The use of membranes has applicability to CCS technologies mainly for CO2, O2 or H2 separation, although most of the membrane studies for CO2/O2 production have been carried out at laboratory scale and will require a step further for commercial scale. This paper will present current membranes R & D needs when applied to CCS systems and CIUDEN capabilities for membrane technological development and testing under real conditions. It covers from O2 separation membrane integration in the process, and applied to the oxy-combustion CO2 capture, to post-combustion technologies for membrane CO2 separation, tested under real conditions or H2 production catalytic-membranes through gasification. At CIUDEN CCS facility important membrane evaluations can be carried out for the module integration, testing of materials performance and behavior under real conditions.
Evaluation of the milk physicochemical and microbiological patterns in different lactation phases in year seasons in milk farms of Paraná State – Brazil / Avalia o de padr es físico-químicos e microbiológicos do leite em diferentes fases de lacta o nas esta es do ano em granjas leiteiras no Estado do Paraná – Brasil
Eder Paulo Fagan,Ronaldo Tamanini,Rafael Fagnani,Vanerli Beloti
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of milk in different lactation phases during a year in two Dairy farms producing type A milk (Brazilian Standards) and classified as Farm 1 (G1) and Farm 2 (G2). The 320 raw milk samples were collected to analyze acidity Dornic, California Mastit Test (CMT), Somatic Cells Counting (SCC) and Cryoscopy (0H) during four seasons, in the period of January 00 to January 005. To data statistical analyses a General linear model (GLM) was used. The CMT, the SCC, acidity Dornic and Cryoscopy (0H) results were not significant (P>0.05), during the year seasons, between the farms and in the different lactation phases. The SCC (9 5.000 cells/mL) average results are in disagreement with the legislation. To the Dornic acidity and Cryoscopy (0H), the values had not exceeded the limit demanded by IN5 . The results of mesophilic aerobic organisms counting during autumn (G ) and during spring (G ) had revealed a disagreement with IN5 . High levels of coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) were observed in G in all seasons when compared with G . It was demonstrated that the physical-chemistry and microbiological quality are important to handling practical during milks. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os parametros físico-químicos e microbiológicos do leite em diferentes fases de lacta o, durante as esta es do ano em duas granjas leiteiras produtoras de leite tipo A (Granja (G ) e Granja (G )), no período de janeiro de 00 a janeiro de 005. Foram colhidas e analisadas 0 amostras de leite cru para análise da acidez Dornic, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Contagem de Células Somáticas (CCS) e crioscopia. Para as análises estatísticas dos dados, foram empregados os Modelos Lineares Generalizados (GLM). Constatou-se que os resultados das análises estatísticas n o foram significativos (P>0,05), durante as esta es do ano, nas diferentes fases de lacta o, entre as granjas avaliadas. Os resultados médios para CCS (9 5.000 CCS/mL), est o em desacordo com a legisla o vigente. Com rela o à acidez Dornic e Crioscopia, os valores n o excederam o limite exigido pela IN51. Os resultados das contagens médias de aeróbios mesófilos no outono na G2 e na primavera na G mostraram-se em desacordo com a IN5 . No caso dos Coliformes totais e Escherichia coli , observou-se que os resultados médios foram maiores na G , em todas as esta es do ano. Evidenciou-se que as qualidades físico-químicas e microbiológicas est o principalmente ligadas às práticas de manejo durante a ordenha.
Sandeep Kumar,Munish Verma,Vijay K. Lamba,Susheel Kumar
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In most of the applications, analog signals are produced in response to some physical phenomenon or activity. But it is quite difficult to process that analog signal; here comes the need to convert an analog signal to a digital signal. For this purpose specific digital signal processors (DSP’s) are developed. TMS 320C6713 is one of such type of processors that can be used to process or handle the signals in a variety of ways. In the current report, basically the architecture of this processor is studied. Along with the processor architecture, the hardware portion DSK (Digital Starter Kit) and the software portion CCS (Code Composer Studio) is also studied. Digital filters are very commonly found in everyday life and include a variety of applications. Mainly they are used for two major purposes: signal separation and signal restoration. Signal separation is needed when a signal has been contaminated with interference, noise, or other signals. Signal restoration is used when a signal has been distorted in some way. So, various programs have been analyzed in this work to implement efficiently those FIR filter structures on TMS 320C6713 DSK. Characteristics of FIR filters are studied in frequency domain.
动物营养学报 , 2011, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-267x.2011.08.001
Abstract: CCS是细胞质中铜锌-超氧化物歧化酶(SOD1)的铜伴侣蛋白。本文综述了CCS介导SOD1激活的过程。CCS与SOD1通过蛋白-蛋白相互作用的方式将铜离子插入到不含铜离子的SOD1(apoSOD1)中,并促进二硫键的形成而激活SOD1。影响CCS活性的因素包括:X连锁的细胞凋亡抑制蛋白(XIAP)、神经接头蛋白X11α和铜代谢中含结构域Murr1蛋白(COMMD1)。
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