Abstract:
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Abstract:
We construct the Hodge dual for supermanifolds by means of the Grassmannian Fourier transform of superforms. In the case of supermanifolds it is known that the superforms are not sufficient to construct a consistent integration theory and that the integral forms are needed. They are distribution-like forms which can be integrated on supermanifolds as a top form can be integrated on a conventional manifold. In our construction of the Hodge dual of superforms they arise naturally. The compatibility between Hodge duality and supersymmetry is exploited and applied to several examples. We define the irreducible representations of supersymmetry in terms of integral and superforms in a new way which can be easily generalised to several models in different dimensions. The construction of supersymmetric actions based on the Hodge duality is presented and new supersymmetric actions with higher derivative terms are found. These terms are required by the invertibility of the Hodge operator.

Abstract:
Dirac fermions have a central role in high energy physics but it is well known that they emerge also as quasiparticles in several condensed matter systems supporting topological order. We present a general method for deriving the topological effective actions of (3+1) massless Dirac fermions living on general backgrounds and coupled with vector and axial-vector gauge fields. The first step of our strategy is standard (in the Hermitian case) and consists in connecting the determinants of Dirac operators with the corresponding analytical indices through the zeta-function regularization. Then, we introduce a suitable splitting of the heat kernel that naturally selects the purely topological part of the determinant (i.e. the topological effective action). This topological effective action is expressed in terms of gauge fields using the Atiyah-Singer index theorem which computes the analytical index in topological terms. The main new result of this paper is to provide a consistent extension of this method to the non Hermitian case where a well-defined determinant does not exist. Quantum systems supporting relativistic fermions can thus be topologically classified on the basis of their response to the presence of (external or emergent) gauge fields through the corresponding topological effective field theories.

Abstract:
Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincare' dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

Abstract:
We present a new construction for the Hodge operator for differential manifolds based on a Fourier (Berezin)-integral representation. We find a simple formula for the Hodge dual of the wedge product of differential forms, using the (Berezin)-convolution. The present analysis is easily extended to supergeometry and to non-commutative geometry.

Abstract:
We discuss the cohomology of superforms and integral forms from a new perspective based on a recently proposed Hodge dual operator. We show how the superspace constraints (a.k.a. rheonomic parametrisation) are translated from the space of superforms $\Omega^{(p|0)}$ to the space of integral forms $\Omega^{(p|m)}$ where $0 \leq p \leq n$, $n$ is the bosonic dimension of the supermanifold and $m$ its fermionic dimension. We dwell on the relation between supermanifolds with non-trivial curvature and Ramond-Ramond fields, for which the Laplace-Beltrami differential, constructed with our Hodge dual, is an essential ingredient. We discuss the definition of Picture Lowering and Picture Raising Operators (acting on the space of superforms and on the space of integral forms) and their relation with the cohomology. We construct non-abelian curvatures for gauge connections in the space $\Omega^{(1|m)}$ and finally discuss Hodge dual fields within the present framework.

Abstract:
We review the extraordinary fertility and proliferation in mathematics and physics of the concept of a surface with constant and negative Gaussian curvature. In his outstanding 1868 paper Beltrami discussed how non-Euclidean geometry is actually realized and displayed in a disk on the plane. This metric is intrinsically defined and definite but only if indefinite metrics are introduced it is possible to fully understand the structure of pseudospheres. In a 3D flat space R^3 the fundamental quadric is introduced, with the same signature as the metric of R^3; this leads to 3 kinds of surfaces with constant Gaussian curvature: the sphere, the single-sheet hyperboloid and the two-sheet hyperboloid; the last one is shown to be isomorphic to Beltrami's disk. The spacetime corresponding to the single-sheet case is de Sitter cosmological model, which, due to its symmetry, has an important role in cosmology. When two of the three fundamental quadrics are combined, a simple, yet deep, solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations corresponding to a uniform electromagnetic field is obtained with many applications in mathematical physics. One of them is a "no go" theorem: when one tries to frame a Riemannian four-dimensional manifold in a Kahlerian structure, it is found that, while this is generically possible with a definite signature, in spacetime only BR fulfills the requirement. The BR metric plays an important role in the exploration of new principles in fundamental physical theories; we briefly mention some examples related to the horizon of a black hole and the dilaton in string theory.

Abstract:
We first review the definition of superprojective spaces from the functor-of-points perspective. We derive the relation between superprojective spaces and supercosets in the framework of the theory of sheaves. As an application of the geometry of superprojective spaces, we extend Donaldson's definition of balanced manifolds to supermanifolds and we derive the new conditions of a balanced supermanifold. We apply the construction to superpoints viewed as submanifolds of superprojective spaces. We conclude with a list of open issues and interesting problems that can be addressed in the present context.

Abstract:
We present a study on the integral forms and their Cech/de Rham cohomology. We analyze the problem from a general perspective of sheaf theory and we explore examples in superprojective manifolds. Integral forms are fundamental in the theory of integration in supermanifolds. One can define the integral forms introducing a new sheaf containing, among other objects, the new basic forms delta(dtheta) where the symbol delta has the usual formal properties of Dirac's delta distribution and acts on functions and forms as a Dirac measure. They satisfy in addition some new relations on the sheaf. It turns out that the enlarged sheaf of integral and "ordinary" superforms contains also forms of "negative degree" and, moreover, due to the additional relations introduced, its cohomology is, in a non trivial way, different from the usual superform cohomology.

Abstract:
We study de Rham cohomology for various differential calculi on finite groups G up to order 8. These include the permutation group S_3, the dihedral group D_4 and the quaternion group Q. Poincare' duality holds in every case, and under some assumptions (essentially the existence of a top form) we find that it must hold in general. A short review of the bicovariant (noncommutative) differential calculus on finite G is given for selfconsistency. Exterior derivative, exterior product, metric, Hodge dual, connections, torsion, curvature, and biinvariant integration can be defined algebraically. A projector decomposition of the braiding operator is found, and used in constructing the projector on the space of 2-forms. By means of the braiding operator and the metric a knot invariant is defined for any finite group.