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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 484664 matches for " C.S. Mulambalah "
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Anopheles Species Diversity and Breeding Habitat Distribution and the Prospect for Focused Malaria Control in the Western Highlands of Kenya
C.S. Mulambalah,D.N. Siamba,M.M. Ngeiywa,J.M. Vulule
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2011.44.51
Abstract: Malaria in the western highlands of Kenya is unpredictable and occurs in form of severe outbreaks and epidemics resulting in loss of life and exerts a strain on public health services. This underlies the continued need for better understanding of the disease determinants to formulate specific and focused intervention strategies. A 1 year study was undertaken in two study sites in Nandi district to determine Anopheles species diversity, abundance and breeding habitat distribution. Indoor and outdoor adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biweekly from randomly selected houses by pyrethrum spray capture method and light traps, respectively. Anopheles larval stages were collected from breeding sites by standard dippers and reared into adults under laboratory conditions. Adult Anopheles species were identified based on morphological features and sibling species by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most prevalent known vector contributing 95.4%, An. funestus and An. arabiensis each 2.3%. All An.gambiae s.l samples were identified by PCR as An. gambiae sensu stricto suggesting that this could be the only sibling species of the An. gambiae complex present in study sites. The epidemiological and public health significance of known malaria vectors and non-vector anopheles species is discussed.
Evaluation of Lambda-Cyhalothrin Persistence on Different Indoor Surfaces in a Malaria Epidemic-Prone Area in Kenya
C.S. Mulambalah,D.N. Siamba,M.M. Ngeiywa,J.M. Vulule
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2010.258.263
Abstract: The residual life of pyrethroid insecticide lambdacyhalothrin (trade name: ICON) on indoor surfaces was evaluated under field conditions in villages in a highland area of Kipsamoite, North Nandi District of Kenya. About 10% lambda-cyhalthrin wettable powder was sprayed at the rate of 0.02-0.03 g m-2 on the indoor wall surface of randomly selected local houses. Its effect on mortality of Anopheles gambiae s.s as test vector was assessed from January to April 2007. Wall bioassays were conducted on different treated wall surfaces using plastic cones attached to treated surfaces at fortnightly intervals. Mortality rate in mosquitoes exposed to treated surfaces varied according to the type of wall that received the insecticide. ICON was more stable and lasted longer on mud and wood surfaces. There was significant difference between persistence of ICON on mud and other surfaces tested. For the insecticide formulation used, the duration of the residual effect was satisfactory up to the WHOPES recommended post spray period. Beyond this period, persistence declined rapidly on metal and cemented/brick plastered surfaces. The low effectiveness of the formulation on metal and cement surfaces should be considered together with the importance of residual spraying as a vector control method in the area. We concluded that the use of ICON in IRS could be a single and effective strategy to control endophiliic and antropophilic malaria vectors in malaria hypoendemic area. This is based on the findings that the local vector is susceptible to ICON and most of the houses had mud surfaces and malaria transmission is seasonal. In this regard, one round of ICON spray would be sufficient to interrupt 3-4 month seasonal malaria transmission in the study area. Apart from its toxicity to mosquitoes, ICON also agitates and repels mosquitoes that do not come in contact with it and therefore an added benefit of reducing the indoor malaria vector densities. This would drastically reduce human-vector contact and overall decline in community malaria prevalence.
Exsheathment Characteristics and Infectivity of Revived Anhydrobiotic L3 of Haemonchus Contortus
D.N. Siamba,C.S. Mulambalah,M.M. Ngeiywa,P.M. Gatongi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of temperature and moisture stress on exsheathment process and infectivity of the infective larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Laboratory conditions were used in which infective (L3) of H. contortus were either subjected to gradually increasing temperatures, decreasing moisture or both. Post stress viability and exsheatment of L3 was determined prior to infection experiments. The viability of H. contortus after induction of anhydrobiosis declined significantly (p<0.05) from 85 to 60% in about 60 days. The results showed significant (p<0.05) delay in exsheathment in stressed larvae compared to unstressed larvae leading to low overall establishment (Infection). However, the proportion of the immature in relation to the mature parasites (hypobiosis) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in stressed compared to the unstressed L3. These results indicate that delayed exsheatment in stressed L3 contributes to low infectivity in ruminants.
Stress Response in Infective Larvae (L3) of the Parasitic Nematode Haemonchus contortus is Accompanied by Enhanced Expression of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP 70)
D.N. Siamba,P.N. Gatongi,C.S. Mulambalah,M.M. Ngeiywa
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study was undertaken to investigate the effects of temperature and moisture stresses on protein profile and characteristics in the free living third larval stages (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. Before and after temperature and moisture stress treatment, the L3 were tested for the induction and expression of Heat-Shock Proteins (HSPs). Proteins were analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis with alkaline-phosphatase conjugated anti HSP 70 antibody. The stress resulted in an altered protein pattern. It was also revealed that stress treatment did not alter the signals obtained with the anti HSP 70 antibody, but the amount of HSP70 as estimated by densitometry differed between pre and post stress samples. This response in the free living third stage larvae (L3) of H. contortus may be aimed at protecting the parasite against molecular damage and ensuring survival during stressful periods.
Changes in Lipids Utilisation During Moisture and Temperature Stress of Infective (L3) and its Implication on the Epidemiology of Haemonchus contortus in Arid and Semi Arid Lands
D.N. Siamba,P.M. Gatongi, C.S. Mulambalah, M.M. Ngeiywa, L.W. Wamae and A. Wambugu
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A study was undertaken to establish the pattern and level of lipid utilization in third stage infective larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus under temperature and moisture stress conditions. The stress factors were representative of an arid and semi arid site in Kenya. The L3 were subjected to gradual increase and reduction in temperature and moisture, respectively, using a programmable cold/heat testing chamber. Optical density per area (Corrected average pixels) derived from image analysis of individual stained larvae using an image analysis software (UN SCAN IT gel(r)), were used to estimate the lipid content of larvae subjected to different stress treatments. It was observed that lipid content of the L3 declined and was negatively correlated with duration of exposure with significantly (p = 0.012) lower rates in moisture compared to temperature stressed L3. It was also observed that the decline occurred in phases signifying possible adaptive physiological process aimed at preserving lipid reserves and viability. During revival, there was a drastic decline in lipid reserves probably as a result of increased lipid utilisation by the reviving larvae. The epidemiological significance of these findings in field larvae is discussed.
Sand Slurry Erosive Wear Behavior of Hot Extruded Al6061-SiC Composites  [PDF]
C.S. Ramesh, R. Keshavamurthy
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.106037
Abstract: Aluminum based composites are very popular in automotive and aerospace segments. In particular aluminum alloy-SiC composite systems are widely studied and seriously explored for various other applications in defense and space. However they have not been looked at as potential materials in naval and chemical applications where synergistic effects of both wear and corrosion need to be addressed to. This needs the assessment of wear behavior of composites. From the survey, it is evident that major focus is on mechanical and corrosion properties of cast composites. However, meager information is available as regards the slurry erosive wear behavior of cast and extruded metal matrix composites. In the light of the above, the present investigation is aimed at studying in detail the slurry erosive wear behavior of cast and hot extruded Al6061 and Al6061-SiC composites in sand slurry. Al6061-SiC composites have been prepared primarily by vortex method. Hot extrusion of these composites and the matrix alloy has been carried out at 550℃ using a 500T hydraulic press. Both as cast and hot extruded composites have been subjected to microstructure studies, microhardness, and slurry erosive wear tests. The hot extruded composites exhibit higher hardness, and slurry erosive wear resistance when compared with as cast alloy and its composites.
Editorial introduction: Encouraging debate: The influence of Gerard Duveen
Howarth, C.S.
Papers on Social Representations , 2010,
Abstract:
Editorial 2009: Towards scholarship, innovation and collaboration
Howarth, C.S.
Papers on Social Representations , 2009,
Abstract:
Revisiting Gender Identities and Education: Notes for a Social Psychology of Resistant Identities in Modern Cultures
Howarth, C.S.
Papers on Social Representations , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper I offer a review and a reflection on Gender Identities and Education: The Impact of Starting School (Lloyd and Duveen, 1992) as a means of examining the detail and insights of Gerard Duveen’s contribution to the study of identity. What this study highlights is the contextual, imposed, inter-subjective and collaborative nature of identity, the relationship between re-presentation, culture and identity, and the dynamic, resistant and transformative character of identity production. I give detailed empirical examples of the genesis of representations of gender and gendered identities through a discussion of the interconnections between microgenesis, ontogenesis and sociogenesis. This leads onto a consideration of representations ‘that other’ more generally and the importance of including the social and material within the methodology of identity projects. As such, I argue, we can see the work of Duveen and his colleagues as valuable for a theory and a method of research of resistant identities in modern cultures, and thereby develop a social psychology properly equipped to research current social relations, and properly engaged with contemporary experiences of identity.
Towards The Eradication Of Iodine Deficiency Disorders In India
Pandav C.S.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1986,
Abstract:
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