Abstract:
This paper summarizes my previous work in Lin (2010), in which I use spatial econometrics to analyze air pollution externalities. In Lin (2010), state-by-state source-receptor transfer coefficients that can be used as a basis for a location- differentiated permit system are estimated. Results affirm the importance of regional transport in determining local ozone air quality, although owing to non-monotonicities in ozone production the externality is not always negative. Because the origin of emissions matters, results also reject a non-spatially differentiated NO_{x} cap and trade program as an appropriate mechanism for reducing ozone smog.

Air pollution is a critical
environmental issue for California,
which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s
most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews
my previous work in Lin (2011), in which I examine the effects of
agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured
by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO_{2} standards, by
exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in
California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution
from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive
dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are
correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters
have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO_{2} standards.

Abstract:
Ripples as seen in airglow imagers are small wavy structures with short horizontal wavelengths (<15 km). Ripples are thought to form as the result of local instabilities, which are believed to occur when the amplitude of gravity waves becomes large enough. We have investigated ripple formation based on years of airglow imager observations located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41° N, 105° W) and Misato Observatory, Japan (34° N, 135° E)/Shigaraki MU Observatory (35° N, 136° E). Na temperature-wind lidar observations are employed to detect convective and dynamic instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region over Fort Collins, Colorado. Seasonal variation of the ripple occurrence in Colorado is compared to that of the lidar-measured instability. The occurrence frequency of ripples varies semiannually, with maxima occurring during solstices and minima during equinoxes in both Colorado and Japan. However, the probability of convective and dynamic instabilities varies annually with a peak in Colorado winter. The seasonal variation of the occurrence frequency of ripples correlates with that of the gravity wave variances in the MLT. Ripple occurrence over Colorado also shows strong local time dependence, but it bears little resemblance to the local time dependence of instability probability.

Abstract:
Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(ν2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3–4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, kVT, and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve kVT in the altitude region 85–105 km from the coincident SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 μm radiation. The averaged kVT value obtained in this work is 6.5 ± 1.5 × 10 12 cm3 s 1 that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations. However, the retrieved kVT also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 ± 1.1 × 10 12 cm3 s 1 at 90 km to 7.9 ± 1.2 × 10 12 cm3 s 1 at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 μm radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the "non-thermal" oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.

Gasoline-powered vehicles produce many negative externalities including
congestion, air pollution, global climate change, and accidents. A gasoline tax
is perhaps the best policy to jointly address these externalities. This paper
calculates the optimal gasoline tax for China. Using a model developed by Parry
and Small [1][2], we calculate the optimal adjusted Pigovian tax in China to be $1.58/gallon
which is 2.65 times more than the current level. Of the externalities
incorporated in this Pigovian tax, the congestion costs are taxed the most
heavily, at $0.82/gallon, followed by local air pollution, accident
externalities, and finally global climate change.

Abstract:
We give an introduction to three di erent topics that are of current interest in heavy-ion collisions. Particles associated with the near-side jet are found to exhibit a Δφ-Δη correlation in the form of a ridge in the Δη direction but a peak at Δφ ~ 0. The experimental data support the description that the ridge particles are medium partons kicked by the jet. The measurement of the characteristics of the ridge provides a unique tool to probe the nature of the (jet parton)-(medium parton) collision and the momentum distribution of dense matter formed in the early stage of the heavy-ion collision. We nd that the magnitude of the longitudinal momentum kick along the jet direction acquired by a medium parton in collision with the jet is about 1 GeV, and the early parton momentum distribution is in the form of a rapidity plateau with a thermal-type transverse momentum distribution. In the second lecture, we re-examine the validity of Landau hydrodynamics which provides a reasonable description of the space-time dynamics of the hot matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We nd that the rapidity distribution of produced particles should be more appropriately modi ed from Landau’s result. Past successes of the Gaussian distribution in explaining experimental rapidity data can be understood, not because it is an approximation of the original Landau distribution, but because it is in fact a close representation of the modi ed distribution. In the nal lecture, we give an introduction to the development of the potential model for quarkonia, using thermodynamical quantities obtained in lattice gauge calculations. We nd that the potential model is consistent with the lattice gauge spectral function analysis, if the color-singlet heavy quark-antiquark potential is a linear combination of the color-singlet free energy F1 and internal energy U1 , with coe cients that depend on the equation of state. We nd that the e ects of dynamical quark modi es only slightly the stability of J/ψ and the quark drip line limits possible quarkonium states with light quarks to temperatures close to, and slightly greater than, the critical phase transition temperature.

This paper analyzes the decision to invest in building ethanol
plants in Thailand.
We analyze the effects of economic factors, strategic factors, and government
policies on ethanol investment using discrete response and fixed effects regression
models. Results show that the main factor that affects the decision to invest
in building an ethanol plant in a particular changwat is the number of ethanol
plants already in the changwat. The number of ethanol plants already in the
changwat has a significant negative effect on the decision to invest in
building an ethanol plant in a particular changwat, which suggests that
potential investors are deterred by local competition in input and output
markets.

Abstract:
This paper gives a review of some recent work on intermittency, non-Gaussian statistics, and fractal scaling of solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Model calculations and theories are discussed and put in their context with the in-situ observations of the solar wind fluctuations, essentially of the flow velocity and magnetic field. Emphasis is placed more on a comparison of the data with the theory than on a complete derivation of the model results, which are treated in a more tutorial fashion. The introduction reminds of some important observations and key aspects of the solar wind turbulence. Then structure functions are defined and observational results discussed. The probability density functions provide a direct means to analyse the statistical properties of the fluctuations. Evidence for non-Gaussian statistics is provided. Intermittency and simple scaling models are discussed, which yield algebraic expressions for the scaling exponents of the structure functions. The concept of the extended self-similarity is presented and corresponding observational evidence for its existence in the solar wind is provided. Subsequently, and extended structure function model, including the p-model scaling and a scale-dependent cascade, is discussed and compared with selected measurements. The basics of the multifractals are presented and applied to solar wind data. The multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux as proxy for the unknown cascading rate is established observationally, and the so-called multifractal spectrum is obtained. Finally, the scaling exponents of the associated correlation functions are derived and analysed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the empirical results and prospects for the future research in this field and in solar wind MHD turbulence in general.

This study uses a numerical method to analyze the proposed model structure. Before the parametric analysis, a pre-analysis to make sure the analytical results are accountable, a verification analysis was performed. The results found are compared well with the limited experimental findings of Goda et al. and it is very encouraging to find that for the proposed method as an alternative for green energy developments, as long as an appropriate design is performed, an OWC combined with breakwater structure may provide an alternative for green energy system utilized in a harbor area. From the results of the first stage of parameter analysis that the size of the openings of the cell of converting system is variable, a traditional full opened cell is not necessary the most efficient design for the wave power conversion in terms of the variations of air pressure inside the cell and air speed through the outlet orifice that will drive the electricity power generator.

Abstract:
This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency). The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.