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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 392634 matches for " C.-P. Chang "
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South China Sea Warm Pool in Boreal Spring
South China Sea Warm Pool in Boreal Spring

Peter C Chu,C-P Chang,
Peter C. Chu
,C.-P. Chang

大气科学进展 , 1997,
Abstract: During the boreal spring of 1966, a warm-core eddy is identified in the upper South China Sea (SCS) west of the Philippines through an analysis of the U.S. Navy’s Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set. This eddy occurred before the development of the northern summer monsoon and disappeared afterward. We propose that this eddy is a result of the radiative warming during spring and the downwelling due to the anticyclonic forcing at the surface. Our hypothesis suggests an air-sea feedback scenario that may explain the development and withdrawal of the summer monsoon over the SCS. The development phase of the warm-core eddy in this hypothesis is tested by using the Princeton Ocean model. Authors are grateful to Yongfu Qian and Shihua Lu for discussion. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research NOMP AND NAMP Programs, and by the Naval Oceanographic Office.
Endoscopic Mucosal Dissection in GI Malignancies
C.-P. Swain,,I. Lu
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper we review the endoscopic mucosal dissection technique for gastrointestinal malignancies in the perspective of the evolution of flexible endoscopic tools to assist in cutting tissue. The available methods as well as the future technology are analyzed in details. It is concluded that the tools for cutting at flexible endoscopy have evolved substantially on recent years.
A New Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal Lens with Ring-and-Pie Electrodes and a Driving Scheme to Prevent Disclination Lines and Improve Recovery Time
Yung-Yuan Kao,Paul C.-P. Chao
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110505402
Abstract: A new liquid crystal lens design is proposed to improve the recovery time with a ring-and-pie electrode pattern through a suitable driving scheme and using dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) MLC-2048. Compared with the conventional single hole-type liquid crystal lens, this new structure of the DFLC lens is composed of only two ITO glasses, one of which is designed with the ring-and-pie pattern. For this device, one can control the orientation of liquid crystal directors via a three-stage switching procedure on the particularly-designed ring-and-pie electrode pattern. This aims to eliminate the disclination lines, and using different drive frequencies to reduce the recovery time to be less than 5 seconds. The proposed DFLC lens is shown effective in reducing recovery time, and then serves well as a potential device in places of the conventional lenses with fixed focus lengths and the conventional LC lens with a single circular-hole electrode pattern.
Four-point high time resolution information on electron densities by the electric field experiments (EFW) on Cluster
A. Pedersen,P. Décréau,C.-P. Escoubet,G. Gustafsson
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: For accurate measurements of electric fields, spherical double probes are electronically controlled to be at a positive potential of approximately 1 V relative to the ambient magnetospheric plasma. The spacecraft will acquire a potential which balances the photoelectrons escaping to the plasma and the electron flux collected from the plasma. The probe-to-plasma potential difference can be measured with a time resolution of a fraction of a second, and provides information on the electron density over a wide range of electron densities from the lobes (~ 0.01 cm-3) to the magnetosheath (>10 cm-3) and the plasmasphere (>100 cm-3). This technique has been perfected and calibrated against other density measurements on GEOS, ISEE-1, CRRES, GEOTAIL and POLAR. The Cluster spacecraft potential measurements opens the way for new approaches, particularly near boundaries and gradients where four-point measurements will provide information never obtained before. Another interesting point is that onboard data storage of this simple parameter can be done for complete orbits and thereby will provide background information for the shorter full data collection periods on Cluster. Preliminary calibrations against other density measurements on Cluster will be reported. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers) Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging; instruments and techniques)
Quantifying flow and remediation zone uncertainties for partially opened wells in heterogeneous aquifers
C.-F. Ni, C.-P. Lin, S.-G. Li,J.-S. Chen
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2011,
Abstract: This study presents a numerical first-order spectral model to quantify transient flow and remediation zone uncertainties for partially opened wells in heterogeneous aquifers. Taking advantages of spectral theories in solving unmodeled small-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity (K), the presented nonstationary spectral method (NSM) can efficiently estimate flow uncertainties, including hydraulic heads and Darcy velocities in r- and z-directions in a cylindrical coordinate system. The velocity uncertainties associated with the particle backward tracking algorithm are then used to estimate stochastic remediation zones for scenarios with partially opened well screens. In this study the flow and remediation zone uncertainties obtained by NSM were first compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations (MCS). A layered aquifer with different geometric mean of K and screen locations was then illustrated with the developed NSM. To compare NSM flow and remediation zone uncertainties with those of MCS, three different small-scale K variances and correlation lengths were considered for illustration purpose. The MCS remediation zones for different degrees of heterogeneity were presented with the uncertainty clouds obtained by 200 equally likely MCS realizations. Results of simulations reveal that the first-order NSM solutions agree well with those of MCS for partially opened wells. The flow uncertainties obtained by using NSM and MCS show identically for aquifers with small ln K variances and correlation lengths. Based on the test examples, the remediation zone uncertainties (bandwidths) are not sensitive to the changes of small-scale ln K correlation lengths. However, the increases of remediation zone uncertainties (i.e. the uncertainty bandwidths) are significant with the increases of small-scale ln K variances. The largest displacement uncertainties may have several meters of differences when the ln K variances increase from 0.1 to 1.0. Such conclusions are also valid for the estimations of remediation zones in layered aquifers.
Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and land use alteration
T.-Y. Lee, J.-C. Huang, S.-J. Kao,C.-P. Tung
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/bg-10-2617-2013
Abstract: Oceania rivers are hotspots of DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus) transport due to humid/warm climate, typhoon-induced episodic rainfall and high tectonic activity that create an environment favorable for high/rapid runoff and soil erosion. In spite of its uniqueness, effects of hydrologic controls and land use on the transport behaviors of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. A 2 yr monitoring study for DIN and DIP from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradient (0 To 8.9%) was implemented during a ~ 3 day interval with an additional monitoring campaign at a 3 h interval during typhoon periods. Results showed the DIN yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated (2.7%), and intensively cultivated (8.9%) watersheds were 8.3, 26, and 37 kg N ha 1 yr 1, respectively. For the DIP yields, they were 0.36, 0.35, and 0.56 kg P ha 1 yr 1, respectively. Higher year-round DIN concentrations and five times larger in DIN yields in intensively cultivated watersheds indicate DIN is more sensitive to land use changes. The high background DIN yield from the relatively pristine watershed was likely due to high atmospheric nitrogen deposition and large subterranean N pool. The correlations between runoff and concentration reveals that typhoon floods purge out more DIN from the subterranean reservoir, i.e., soil, by contrast, runoff washes off surface soil resulting in higher suspended sediment with higher DIP. Collectively, typhoon runoff contributes 20–70% and 47–80%, respectively, to the annual DIN and DIP exports. The DIN yield to DIP yield ratio varied from 97 to 410, which is higher than the global mean of ~ 18. Such a high ratio indicates a P-limiting condition in stream and the downstream aquatic environment. Based on our field observation, we constructed a conceptual model illustrating different remobilization mechanisms for DIN and DIP from headwaters in a mountainous river, which is analogous to typical Oceania rivers and the headwater of large rivers in similar climate zones. Our study advanced our understanding about the role of cyclones, which exert hydrological control, and land use on nutrient export in the Oceania region, benefiting watershed management under the context of climate change.
Temporal variation of nitrate and phosphate transport in headwater catchments: the hydrological controls and landuse alteration
T.-Y. Lee,J.-C. Huang,S.-J. Kao,C.-P. Tung
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-13211-2012
Abstract: Oceania Rivers are hotspots of high DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus) transport. However, the effects of hydrologic controls and land use alternation on the temporal variations of DIN and DIP are rarely documented. In this study, we monitored the nitrate and phosphate concentrations from three headwater catchments with different cultivation gradients at a 3-day interval. This sampling scheme was supplemented with a 3-h interval monitoring during typhoon periods. The results showed that the DIN and DIP yields in the pristine, moderately cultivated, and intensively cultivated watersheds were 7.52/0.31, 31.17/0.30, and 40.96/0.52 kg ha 1 yr 1, respectively. The high DIN yields are comparable to the intensively and extensively disturbed large rivers around the world. These N yields may be due to a high level of nitrogen deposition, rainfall-runoff, and fertilizer application. The importance of event sampling was indicated by the contribution of the three typhoons to the annual DIN and DIP fluxes, which were 30% and 60%, respectively. Both DIN and DIP fluxes significantly increased as the cultivation gradient increased. The DIN and DIP ratio varied from 54 to 230 depending on the decrease of the cultivation gradient. This value is higher than the global mean of ~18. Thus, we speculate that nitrogen saturation occurs in the headwater catchments of Oceania Rivers. The results obtained provide fundamental clues of DIN and DIP yield of Oceania Rivers, which are helpful in understanding the impact of human disturbance on headwater watersheds.
Quantifying flow and remediation zone uncertainties for partially opened wells in heterogeneous aquifers
C.-F. Ni,C.-P. Lin,S.-G. Li,J.-S. Chen
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-3133-2011
Abstract: This study presents a numerical first-order spectral model to quantify flow and remediation zone uncertainties for partially opened wells in heterogeneous aquifers. Taking advantages of spectral theories in solving unmodeled small-scale variability in hydraulic conductivity (K), the presented nonstationary spectral method (NSM) can efficiently estimate flow uncertainties, including hydraulic heads and Darcy velocities in r- and z profile in a cylindrical coordinate system. The velocity uncertainties associated with the particle backward tracking algorithm are then used to estimate stochastic remediation zones for scenarios with partially opened well screens. In this study the flow and remediation zone uncertainties obtained by NSM were first compared with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulations (MCS). A layered aquifer with different geometric mean of K and screen locations was then illustrated with the developed NSM. To compare NSM flow and remediation zone uncertainties with those of MCS, three different small-scale K variances and correlation lengths were considered for illustration purpose. The MCS remediation zones for different degrees of heterogeneity were presented with the uncertainty clouds obtained by 200 equally likely MCS realizations. Results of simulations reveal that the first-order NSM solutions agree well with those of MCS for partially opened wells. The flow uncertainties obtained by using NSM and MCS show identically for aquifers with small ln K variances and correlation lengths. Based on the test examples, the remediation zone uncertainties are not sensitive to the changes of small-scale ln K correlation lengths. However, the increases of remediation zone uncertainties are significant with the increases of small-scale ln K variances. The largest displacement uncertainties may have several meters of differences when the ln K variances increase from 0.1 to 1.0. Such results are also valid for the estimations of remediation zones in layered aquifers.
60 GHz Indoor Propagation Studies for Wireless Communications Based on a Ray-Tracing Method
C.-P. Lim,M. Lee,R. J. Burkholder,J. L. Volakis
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/73928
Abstract: This paper demonstrates a ray-tracing method for modeling indoor propagation channels at 60 GHz. A validation of the ray-tracing model with our in-house measurement is also presented. Based on the validated model, the multipath channel parameter such as root mean square (RMS) delay spread and the fading statistics at millimeter wave frequencies are easily extracted. As such, the proposed ray-tracing method can provide vital information pertaining to the fading condition in a site-specific indoor environment.
Search for B_{s}^{0}->hh Decays at the $Υ(5S)$ Resonance
C. -C. Peng,P. Chang,the Belle Collaboration
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.072007
Abstract: We have searched for B_{s}^{0}->hh decays, where h stands for a charged or neutral kaon, or a charged pion. These results are based on a 23.6 fb^{-1} data sample collected with the Belle detector on the \Upsilon(5S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider, containing 1.25x10^6 B_{s}^{(*)}\bar{B}_{s}^{(*)} events. We observe the decay B_{s}^{0}->K^{+}K^{-} and measure its branching fraction, \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^{+}K^{-}) = [3.8_{-0.9}^{+1.0}(\mathrm{stat})\pm 0.5(\mathrm{syst})\pm 0.5(f_s)] \times 10^{-5}. The first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third error is due to the uncertainty in the B^0_s production fraction in $e^+e^-\to b\bar{b}$ events. No significant signals are seen in other decay modes, and we set upper limits at 90% confidence level: \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^-\pi^{+})< 2.6 \times 10^{-5}, \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->\pi^{+}\pi^{-})< 1.2 \times 10^{-5} and \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^0\bar{K}^0) < 6.6\times 10^{-5}.
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