Abstract:
Aims and Objective: To evaluate the effects of phytoestrogen diet alone and high phytoestrogen diet with rutin and naringin on male reproductive system.Experimental Protocol: A total of 48 adult male wistar albino rats were divided in to 8 groups, each contains 6 rats. Low phytoestrogen diet (LPD) and high phytoestrogen diet (HPD) were administered to the two different groups of rats for 35 days. Rutin and naringin, antioxidants were also given in different doses (5mg/kg, 10/kg) for a period of 35 days along with high phytoestrogen diet in different groups of rats. A sham control group animals fed on commercial pellet diet and vehicle control group animals with 0.1% sod CMC were also maintained until completion of 35 days. On 36th day bilateral orchiectomies were performed for all the animals. The testicular tissue was evaluated for various sperm parameters, biochemical estimations and histological changes.Results: Animals fed on low and high phytoestrogen diets has shown fall in sperm parameters and lipid peroxidation and increase in testicular antioxidant enzymes. Rutin and naringin have not shownany significant effect on sperm parameters. But decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed. No histological changes were observed.Conclusions: High phytoestrogen diet has reduced all the sperm parameters drastically. Antioxidants have not shown any effect on sperm parameters but amplified the antioxidant enzymes and reducedMDA levels.

Abstract:
Differential cross sections for the gamma p -> pi^0 p reaction have been measured with the A2 tagged-photon facilities at the Mainz Microtron, MAMI C, up to the center-of-mass energy W=1.9 GeV. The new results, obtained with a fine energy and angular binning, increase the existing quantity of pi^0 photoproduction data by ~47%. Owing to the unprecedented statistical accuracy and the full angular coverage, the results are sensitive to high partial-wave amplitudes. This is demonstrated by the decomposition of the differential cross sections in terms of Legendre polynomials and by further comparison to model predictions. A new solution of the SAID partial-wave analysis obtained after adding the new data into the fit is presented.

Abstract:
The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to measure the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the $\Delta(1232)$ region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a dispersion model calculation yields $\gamma_{E1E1} = -3.5 \pm 1.2$, $\gamma_{M1M1}= 3.16 \pm 0.85$, $\gamma_{E1M2} = -0.7 \pm 1.2$, and $\gamma_{M1E2} = 1.99 \pm 0.29$, in units of $10^{-4}$ fm$^4$.

Abstract:
We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball detector obtained from a study of single p0 photoproduction on deuterium using the tagged photon beam at the Mainz Microtron. The results were obtained up to a neutron energy of 400 MeV. They are compared to previous measurements made more than 15 years ago at the pion beam at the BNL AGS.

Abstract:
We present new data for the transverse target asymmetry T and the very first data for the beam-target asymmetry F in the $\vec \gamma \vec p\to\eta p$ reaction up to a center-of-mass energy of W=1.9 GeV. The data were obtained with the Crystal-Ball/TAPS detector setup at the Glasgow tagged photon facility of the Mainz Microtron MAMI. All existing model predictions fail to reproduce the new data indicating a significant impact on our understanding of the underlying dynamics of $\eta$ meson photoproduction. The peculiar nodal structure observed in existing T data close to threshold is not confirmed.

Abstract:
The accuracy of wavefront reconstruction from discrete slope measurements depends on the sampling geometry, coherence length of the incoming wavefronts, wavefront sensor specifications and the accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and a comparison of Fourier and Vector Matrix Multiply reconstruction methods was made with respect to these experimental and computational parameters. It was observed that although Fourier reconstruction gave consistent accuracy when coherence length of wavefronts is larger than the corresponding pitch on the wavefront sensor, VMM method gives even better accuracy when the coherence length closely matches with the wavefront sensor pitch.

Abstract:
In adaptive optics, the measurement of spatial coherence length helps in deciding the optimum design parameters of a Shack Hartmann Sensor (SHS). Two methods of estimating the spatial coherence length of optical wavefronts are presented. The first method is based on counting the number of Hough peaks in the wavefront. The second method is based on a simple data mining technique applied on the wavefronts. Optical wavefronts with different properties are simulated and used for statistical analysis. A comparison of the performance of the two methods is presented using Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that both these methods can become efficient tools in estimating the effective coherence length of optical wavefronts.

Abstract:
Servo lag errors in adaptive optics lead to inaccurate compensation of wavefront distortions. An attempt has been made to predict future wavefronts using data mining on wavefronts of the immediate past to reduce these errors. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on experimentally obtained data that closely follows Kolmogorov phase characteristics. An improvement of 6% in wavefront correction is reported after data mining is performed. Data mining is performed in three steps (a) Data cube Segmentation (b) Polynomial Interpolation and (c) Wavefront Estimation. It is important to optimize the segment size that gives best prediction results. Optimization of the best predictable future helps in selecting a suitable exposure time.

Abstract:
Under a thin lens and paraxial approximation, the phase transformation function of a lens was simulated on a Liquid Crystal (LC) based Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). The properties of an array of such lenses simulated on transmitting type and reflecting type SLMs were investigated and the limits of its operation in wavefront sensing applications are discussed.

Abstract:
Three centroiding techniques to estimate the position of the spots in a Shack Hartmann sensor: Normalized Centre of Gravity (CoG), Iteratively Weighted Centre of Gravity (IWCoG) and Intensity Weighted (IWC) centroiding are studied in comparison. The spot pattern at the focal plane of a Shack Hartmann sensor was simulated by including the effect of a background noise. We present the results of optimization of the performance of each of the centroiding techniques as a function of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at different experimental conditions.