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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219553 matches for " C. Reichhardt "
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Fluctuations, Jamming, and Yielding for a Driven Probe Particle in Disordered Disk Assemblies
C. J. Olson Reichhardt,C. Reichhardt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.051306
Abstract: Using numerical simulations we examine the velocity fluctuations of a probe particle driven with constant force through a two-dimensional disordered assembly of disks which has a well-defined jamming point J at a density of \phi_J=0.843. As \phi increases toward \phi_J, the average velocity of the probe particle decreases and the velocity fluctuations show an increasingly intermittent or avalanchelike behavior. When the system is within a few percent of the jamming density, the velocity distributions are exponential, while when the system is less than a percent away from jamming, the velocity distributions have a non-exponential or power law character. The velocity power spectra exhibit a crossover from a Lorentzian form to a 1/f shape near jamming. We extract a correlation exponent \nu which is in good agreement with recent shear simulations. For \phi > \phi_J, there is a critical threshold force F_c that must be applied for the probe particle to move through the sample which increases with increasing \phi. The onset of the probe motion above \phi_J occurs via a local yielding of the particles around the probe particle which we term a local shear banding effect.
Viscous Decoupling Transitions for Individually Dragged Particles in Systems with Quenched Disorder
C. J. Olson Reichhardt,C. Reichhardt
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.011402
Abstract: We show that when an individual particle is dragged through an assembly of other particles in the presence of quenched disorder, a viscous decoupling transition occurs between the dragged particle and the surrounding particles which is controlled by the quenched disorder. A counterintuitive consequence of this transition is that the velocity of the dragged particle can be increased by increasing the strength or density of the quenched disorder. The decoupling transition can also occur when the external drive on the dragged particle is increased, and is observable as a clear signature in the velocity-force response.
Shear Banding and Spatiotemporal Oscillations in Vortex Matter in Nanostructured Superconductors
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.100506
Abstract: We propose a simple nanostructured pinning array geometry where a rich variety of complex vortex shear banding phenomena can be realized. A single row of pinning sites is removed from a square pinning array. Shear banding effects arise when vortex motion in the pin-free channel nucleates motion of vortices in the surrounding pinned regions, creating discrete steps in the vortex velocity profile away from the channel. Near the global depinning transition, the width of the band of moving vortices undergoes oscillations or fluctuations that can span the entire system. We use simulations to show that these effects should be observable in the transport properties of the system. Similar large oscillations and shear banding effects are known to occur for sheared complex fluids in which different dynamical phases coexist.
Simulations of Noise in Disordered Systems
C. J. Olson Reichhardt,C. Reichhardt
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1117/12.488597
Abstract: We use particle dynamics simulations to probe the correlations between noise and dynamics in a variety of disordered systems, including superconducting vortices, 2D electron liquid crystals, colloids, domain walls, and granular media. The noise measurements offer an experimentally accessible link to the microscopic dynamics, such as plastic versus elastic flow during transport, and can provide a signature of dynamical reordering transitions in the system. We consider broad and narrow band noise in transport systems, as well as the fluctuations of dislocation density in a system near the melting transition.
Commensurability Effects at Nonmatching Fields for Vortices in Diluted Periodic Pinning Arrays
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.094512
Abstract: Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that superconductors containing periodic pinning arrays which have been diluted through random removal of a fraction of the pins have pronounced commensurability effects at the same magnetic field strength as undiluted pinning arrays. The commensuration can occur at fields significantly higher than the matching field, produces much greater critical current enhancement than a random pinning arrangement due to suppresion of vortex channeling, and persists for arrays with up to 90% dilution. These results suggest that diluted periodic pinning arrays may be a promising geometry to increase the critical current in superconductors over a wide magnetic field range.
Collective Sliding States for Colloidal Molecular Crystals
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.061403
Abstract: We study the driving of colloidal molecular crystals over periodic substrates such as those created with optical traps. The n-merization that occurs in the colloidal molecular crystal states produces a remarkably rich variety of distinct dynamical behaviors, including polarization effects within the pinned phase and the formation of both ordered and disordered sliding phases. Using computer simulations, we map the dynamic phase diagrams as a function of substrate strength for dimers and trimers on a triangular substrate, and correlate features on the phase diagram with transport signatures.
Random Organization and Plastic Depinning
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.168301
Abstract: We provide evidence that plastic depinning falls into the same class of phenomena as the random organization which was recently studied in periodically driven particle systems [L. Corte et al., Nature Phys. 4, 420 (2008)]. In the plastic flow system, the pinned regime corresponds to the quiescent state and the moving state corresponds to the fluctuating state. When an external force is suddenly applied, the system eventually organizes into one of these two states with a time scale that diverges as a power law at a nonequilibrium transition. We propose a simple experiment to test for this transition in colloidal systems and superconducting vortex systems with random disorder.
Pattern Switching and Polarizability for Colloids in Optical Trap Arrays
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.022401
Abstract: We show that colloidal molecular crystal states interacting with a periodic substrate, such as an optical trap array, and a rotating external field can undergo a rapid pattern switching in which the orientation of the crystal changes. In some cases, a martensitic-like symmetry switching occurs. It is also possible to create a polarized state where the colloids in each substrate minima develop a director field which smoothly rotates with the external drive, similar to liquid crystal behavior. These results open the possibility for creating novel types of devices using photonic band gap materials, and should be generalizable to a variety of other condensed matter systems with multiple particle trapping.
Coherent and Incoherent Vortex Flow States in Crossed Channels
C. J. Olson Reichhardt,C. Reichhardt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/88/47004
Abstract: We examine vortex flow states in periodic square pinning arrays with one row and one column of pinning sites removed to create an easy flow crossed channel geometry. When a drive is simultaneously applied along both major symmetry axes of the pinning array such that vortices move in both channels, a series of coherent flow states develop in the channel intersection at rational ratios of the drive components in each symmetry direction when the vortices can cross the intersection without local collisions. The coherent flow states are correlated with a series of anomalies in the velocity force curves, and in some cases can produce negative differential conductivity. The same general behavior could also be realized in other systems including colloids, particle traffic in microfluidic devices, or Wigner crystals in crossed one-dimensional channels.
Switching and Jamming Transistor Effect for Vortex Matter in Honeycomb Pinning Arrays with ac Drives
C. Reichhardt,C. J. Olson Reichhardt
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.024510
Abstract: We show that a remarkable variety of dynamical phenomena, including switching, polarization, symmetry locking, and dynamically induced pinning, can occur for vortices in type-II superconductors in the presence of a honeycomb pinning array and an ac or combined ac and dc drive. These effects occur at the second matching field where there are two vortices per pinning site, and arise due to the formation of vortex dimer states in the interstitial regions of the honeycomb array. The orientation of the pinned and moving vortex dimers can be controlled externally by the application of a drive. We term this a polarization effect and demonstrate that it can lock or unlock the vortex motion into different symmetry directions of the underlying pinning lattice. If the moving vortices are locked into one direction, the motion can be switched into a different direction by applying an additional bias drive, producing sharp jumps in the transverse and longitudinal velocities. Further, the dc vortex motion in one direction can be controlled directly by application of a force in the perpendicular direction. When the moving dimers reorient, we find a remarkable dynamical pinning effect in which the dimers jam when they become perpendicular to the easy flow direction of the pinning lattice. Since application of an external field can be used to switch off the vortex flow, we term this a jamming transistor effect. These effects do not occur in triangular pinning arrays due to the lack of the n-merization of the vortices in this case. The switching and dynamical pinning effects demonstrated here may be useful for the creation of new types of fluxtronic devices.
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