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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219563 matches for " C. Pistillo "
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Nuclear Emulsion Film Detectors for Proton Radiography: Design and Test of the First Prototype
S. Braccini,A. Ereditato,I. Kreslo,U. Moser,C. Pistillo,P. Scampoli,S. Studer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1142/9789814307529_0103
Abstract: Proton therapy is nowadays becoming a wide spread clinical practice in cancer therapy and sophisticated treatment planning systems are routinely used to exploit at best the ballistic properties of charged particles. The information on the quality of the beams and the range of the protons is a key issue for the optimization of the treatment. For this purpose, proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the range of the protons, on the average density of the tissues for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with negligible dose to the patient. We propose an innovative method based on nuclear emulsion film detectors for proton radiography, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. Nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be fruitfully used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high precision. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam at PSI. The scanning of the emulsions has been performed at LHEP in Bern, where a fully automated microscopic scanning technology has been developed for the OPERA experiment on neutrino oscillations. After track reconstruction, the first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging a simple phantom made of PMMA with a step of 1 cm. A second phantom with five 5 x 5 mm^2 section aluminum rods located at different distances and embedded in a PMMA structure has been also imaged. Further investigations are in progress to improve the resolution and to image more sophisticated phantoms.
Observation of neutrino interactions in the OPERA detector
Alberto Garfagnini,Ciro Pistillo
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe $\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\tau}$ oscillations by looking at the appearance of $\nu_{\tau}$'s in an almost pure $\nu_\mu$ beam. The beam is produced at CERN and sent towards the Gran Sasso INFN laboratories where the experiment is running. OPERA started its data taking in October 2007, when the first 38 neutrino interactions where successfully located and reconstructed. This paper reviews the status of the experiment discussing its physics potential and performances for neutrino oscillation studies.
First results on proton radiography with nuclear emulsion detectors
S. Braccini,A. Ereditato,I. Kreslo,U. Moser,C. Pistillo,S. Studer,P. Scampoli,A. Coray,E. Pedroni
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/5/09/P09001
Abstract: We propose an innovative method for proton radiography based on nuclear emulsion film detectors, a technique in which images are obtained by measuring the position and the residual range of protons passing through the patient's body. For this purpose, nuclear emulsion films interleaved with tissue equivalent absorbers can be used to reconstruct proton tracks with very high accuracy. This is performed through a fully automated scanning procedure employing optical microscopy, routinely used in neutrino physics experiments. Proton radiography can be used in proton therapy to obtain direct information on the average tissue density for treatment planning optimization and to perform imaging with very low dose to the patient. The first prototype of a nuclear emulsion based detector has been conceived, constructed and tested with a therapeutic proton beam. The first promising experimental results have been obtained by imaging simple phantoms.
A new application of emulsions to measure the gravitational force on antihydrogen
C. Amsler,A. Ariga,T. Ariga,S. Braccini,C. Canali,A. Ereditato,J. Kawada,M. Kimura,I. Kreslo,C. Pistillo,P. Scampoli,J. W. Storey
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/02/P02015
Abstract: We propose to build and operate a detector based on the emulsion film technology for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration on antimatter, to be performed by the AEgIS experiment (AD6) at CERN. The goal of AEgIS is to test the weak equivalence principle with a precision of 1% on the gravitational acceleration g by measuring the vertical position of the anni- hilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms after their free fall in a horizontal vacuum pipe. With the emulsion technology developed at the University of Bern we propose to improve the performance of AEgIS by exploiting the superior position resolution of emulsion films over other particle de- tectors. The idea is to use a new type of emulsion films, especially developed for applications in vacuum, to yield a spatial resolution of the order of one micron in the measurement of the sag of the antihydrogen atoms in the gravitational field. This is an order of magnitude better than what was planned in the original AEgIS proposal.
Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique to measure the fragmentation of a high-energy carbon beam
G. De Lellis,S. Buontempo,F. Di Capua,A. Marotta,P. Migliozzi,Y. Petukhov,C. Pistillo,A. Russo,L. Scotto Lavina,P. Strolin,V. Tioukov,A. Ariga,N. Naganawa,T. Toshito,Y. Furusawa,N. Yasuda
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/2/06/P06004
Abstract: Beams of Carbon nuclei are used or planned to be used in various centers for cancer treatment around the world because of their therapeutic advantages over proton beams. The knowledge of the fragmentation of Carbon nuclei when they interact with the human body is important to evaluate the spatial profile of their energy deposition in the tissues, hence the damage to the tissues neighboring the tumor. In this respect, the identification of the fragmentation products is a key element. We present in this paper the charge measurement of about 3000 fragments produced by the interaction of $^{12}$C nuclei with an energy of 400 MeV/nucleon in a detector simulating the density of the human body. The nuclear emulsion technique is used, by means of the so-called Emulsion Cloud Chamber. In order to achieve the large dynamical range required for the charge measurement, the recently developed techniques of the emulsion controlled fading are used. The nuclear emulsions are inspected using fast automated microscopes recently developed. A charge assignment efficiency of more than 99% is achieved. The separation of Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Berillium, Boron and Carbon can be achieved at two standard deviations or considerably more, according to the track length available for the measurement.
NF-κB/Rel-Mediated Regulation of the Neural Fate in Drosophila
Savita Ayyar, Daniela Pistillo, Manuel Calleja, Anna Brookfield, Kelly Gittins, Claire Goldstone, Pat Simpson
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001178
Abstract: Two distinct roles are described for Dorsal, Dif and Relish, the three NF-κB/Rel proteins of Drosophila, in the development of the peripheral nervous system. First, these factors regulate transcription of scute during the singling out of sensory organ precursors from clusters of cells expressing the proneural genes achaete and scute. This effect is possibly mediated through binding sites for NF-κB/Rel proteins in a regulatory module of the scute gene required for maintenance of scute expression in precursors as well as repression in cells surrounding precursors. Second, genetic evidence suggests that the receptor Toll-8, Relish, Dif and Dorsal, and the caspase Dredd pathway are active over the entire imaginal disc epithelium, but Toll-8 expression is excluded from sensory organ precursors. Relish promotes rapid turnover of transcripts of the target genes scute and asense through an indirect, post-transcriptional mechanism. We propose that this buffering of gene expression levels serves to keep the neuro-epithelium constantly poised for neurogenesis.
Measurement of the muon beam direction and muon flux for the T2K neutrino experiment
K. Suzuki,S. Aoki,A. Ariga,T. Ariga,F. Bay,C. Bronner,A. Ereditato,M. Friend,M. Hartz,T. Hiraki,A. K. Ichikawa,T. Ishida,T. Ishii,F. Juget,T. Kikawa,T. Kobayashi,H. Kubo,K. Matsuoka,T. Maruyama,A. Minamino,A. Murakami,T. Nakadaira,T. Nakaya,K. Nakayoshi,Y. Oyama,C. Pistillo,K. Sakashita,T. Sekiguchi,S. Y. Suzuki,S. Tada,Y. Yamada,K. Yamamoto,M. Yokoyama
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) neutrino experiment measures neutrino oscillations by using an almost pure muon neutrino beam produced at the J-PARC accelerator facility. The T2K muon monitor was installed to measure the direction and stability of the muon beam which is produced together with the muon neutrino beam. The systematic error in the muon beam direction measurement was estimated, using data and MC simulation, to be 0.28 mrad. During beam operation, the proton beam has been controlled using measurements from the muon monitor and the direction of the neutrino beam has been tuned to within 0.3 mrad with respect to the designed beam-axis. In order to understand the muon beam properties,measurement of the absolute muon yield at the muon monitor was conducted with an emulsion detector. The number of muon tracks was measured to be $(4.06\pm0.05)\times10^4$ cm$^{-2}$ normalized with $4\times10^{11}$ protons on target with 250 kA horn operation. The result is in agreement with the prediction which is corrected based on hadron production data.
RACK1 Is a Ribosome Scaffold Protein for β-actin mRNA/ZBP1 Complex
Marcello Ceci, Kristy Welshhans, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Rossella Brandi, Chiara Parisi, Francesca Paoletti, Luana Pistillo, Gary J. Bassell, Antonino Cattaneo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035034
Abstract: In neurons, specific mRNAs are transported in a translationally repressed manner along dendrites or axons by transport ribonucleic-protein complexes called RNA granules. ZBP1 is one RNA binding protein present in transport RNPs, where it transports and represses the translation of cotransported mRNAs, including β-actin mRNA. The release of β-actin mRNA from ZBP1 and its subsequent translation depends on the phosphorylation of ZBP1 by Src kinase, but little is known about how this process is regulated. Here we demonstrate that the ribosomal-associated protein RACK1, another substrate of Src, binds the β-actin mRNA/ZBP1 complex on ribosomes and contributes to the release of β-actin mRNA from ZBP1 and to its translation. We identify the Src binding and phosphorylation site Y246 on RACK1 as the critical site for the binding to the β-actin mRNA/ZBP1 complex. Based on these results we propose RACK1 as a ribosomal scaffold protein for specific mRNA-RBP complexes to tightly regulate the translation of specific mRNAs.
Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope
L. Arrabito,C. Bozza,S. Buontempo,L. Consiglio,M. Cozzi,N. D'Ambrosio,G. De Lellis,M. De Serio,F. Di Capua,D. Di Ferdinando,N. Di Marco,A. Ereditato,L. S. Esposito,R. A. Fini,G. Giacomelli,M. Giorgini,G. Grella,M. Ieva,J. Janicsko Csathy,F. Juget,I. Kreslo,I. Laktineh,K. Manai,G. Mandrioli,A. Marotta,P. Migliozzi,P. Monacelli,U. Moser,M. T. Muciaccia,A. Pastore,L. Patrizii,Y. Petukhov,C. Pistillo,M. Pozzato,G. Romano,G. Rosa,A. Russo,N. Savvinov,A. Schembri,L. Scotto Lavina,S. Simone,M. Sioli,C. Sirignano,G. Sirri,P. Strolin,V. Tioukov,T. Waelchli
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/2/05/P05004
Abstract: The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of $\rm \nu_\mu \to \nu_\tau$ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of $\rm \nu_\tau$'s in the CNGS $\rm \nu_\mu$ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of 20 cm^2 / h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA.
Electron/pion separation with an Emulsion Cloud Chamber by using a Neural Network
L. Arrabito,D. Autiero,C. Bozza,S. Buontempo,Y. Caffari,L. Consiglio,M. Cozzi,N. D'Ambrosio,G. De Lellis,M. De Serio,F. Di Capua,D. Di Ferdinando,N. Di Marco,A. Ereditato,L. S. Esposito,S. Gagnebin,G. Giacomelli,M. Giorgini,G. Grella,M. Hauger,M. Ieva,J. Janicsko Csathy,F. Juget,I. Kreslo,I. Laktineh,A. Longhin,G. Mandrioli,A. Marotta,J. Marteau,P. Migliozzi,P. Monacelli,U. Moser,M. T. Muciaccia,A. Pastore,L. Patrizii,C. Pistillo,M. Pozzato,G. Romano,G. Rosa,A. Russo,N. Savvinov,A. Schembri,L. Scotto Lavina,S. Simone,M. Sioli,C. Sirignano,G. Sirri,P. Strolin,V. Tioukov
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/2/02/P02001
Abstract: We have studied the performance of a new algorithm for electron/pion separation in an Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) made of lead and nuclear emulsion films. The software for separation consists of two parts: a shower reconstruction algorithm and a Neural Network that assigns to each reconstructed shower the probability to be an electron or a pion. The performance has been studied for the ECC of the OPERA experiment [1]. The $e/\pi$ separation algorithm has been optimized by using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the ECC and tested on real data taken at CERN (pion beams) and at DESY (electron beams). The algorithm allows to achieve a 90% electron identification efficiency with a pion misidentification smaller than 1% for energies higher than 2 GeV.
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