Abstract:
It is shown that the magnetic state decoherence produced by collisions in a thermal vapor can be suppressed by the application of a train of ultrafast optical pulses.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of a beam of fermions diffracted off a density grating formed by fermionic atoms in the limit of a large grating. An exact description of the system in terms of particle-hole operators is developed. We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to quantitatively explore the Raman-Nath and the Bragg regimes of diffraction. We discuss the limits in diffraction efficiency resulting from the dephasing of the grating due the distribution of energy states occupied by the fermions. We propose several methods to overcome these limits, including the novel technique of ``atom echoes''.

Abstract:
We study the diffraction of quantum degenerate fermionic atoms off of quantized light fields in an optical cavity. We compare the case of a linear cavity with standing wave modes to that of a ring cavity with two counter-propagating traveling wave modes. It is found that the dynamics of the atoms strongly depends on the quantization procedure for the cavity field. For standing waves, no correlations develop between the cavity field and the atoms. Consequently, standing wave Fock states yield the same results as a classical standing wave field while coherent states give rise to a collapse and revivals in the scattering of the atoms. In contrast, for traveling waves the scattering results in quantum entanglement of the radiation field and the atoms. This leads to a collapse and revival of the scattering probability even for Fock states. The Pauli Exclusion Principle manifests itself as an additional dephasing of the scattering probability.

Abstract:
We analyze the dynamics of the molecular field incoherently pumped by the photoassociation of fermionic atoms and coupled by quantum tunnelling in a double-well potential. The relative phase distribution of the molecular modes in each well and their phase coherence are shown to build up owing to quantum mechanical fluctuations starting from the vacuum state. We identify three qualitatively different steady-state phase distributions, depending on the ratio of the molecule-molecule interaction strength to interwell tunnelling, and examine the crossover from a phase-coherent regime to a phase-incoherent regime as this ratio increases.

Abstract:
We consider a two-component weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of an external field which couples the two components. We express the Hamiltonian in terms of the energy eigenstates of the single-body part of the Hamiltonian. These eigenstates are the atomic dressed states of quantum optics. When the energy difference between the two dressed states is much larger than the mean-field interactions, two-body interactions in the dressed state basis that do not conserve the number of atoms in each of the two dressed states are highly suppressed. The two-body interactions then take on a simplified form in the dressed basis with effective coupling constants that depend on the intensity and frequency of the external field. This implies that the chemical potential as well as the quasiparticle spectrum may be controlled experimentally in a simple manner. We demonstrate this by showing that one may achieve significant variations in the speed of sound in the condensate, a quantity which has been measured experimentally.

Abstract:
A theory of pump-probe spectroscopy is developed in which optical fields drive two-photon Raman transitions between ground states of an ensemble of three-level $\Lambda $ atoms. Effects related to the recoil the atoms undergo as a result of their interactions with the fields are fully accounted for in this theory. The linear absorption coefficient of a weak probe field in the presence of two pump fields of arbitrary strength is calculated. For subrecoil cooled atoms, the spectrum consists of eight absorption lines and eight emission lines. In the limit that $\chi_{1}\ll \chi_{2}$, where $\chi_{1}$ and $\chi_{2}$ are the Rabi frequencies of the two pump fields, one recovers the absorption spectrum for a probe field interacting with an effective two-level atom in the presence of a single pump field. However when $\chi_{1}\gtrsim \chi_{2}$, new interference effects arise that allow one to selectively turn on and off some of these recoil induced resonances.

Abstract:
We present a scheme for determining if the quantum state of a small trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is a state with well defined number of atoms, a Fock state, or a state with a broken U(1) gauge symmetry, a coherent state. The proposal is based on the observation of Ramsey fringes. The population difference observed in a Ramsey fringe experiment will exhibit collapse and revivals due to the mean-field interactions. The collapse and revival times depend on the relative strength of the mean-field interactions for the two components and the initial quantum state of the condensate.

Abstract:
We calculate the momentum distribution and the second-order correlation function in momentum space, $g^{(2)}({\bf p},{\bf p}',t)$ for molecular dimers that are coherently formed from an ultracold atomic gas by photoassociation or a Feshbach resonance. We investigate using perturbation theory how the quantum statistics of the molecules depend on the initial state of the atoms by considering three different initial states: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a normal Fermi gas of ultra-cold atoms, and a BCS-type superfluid Fermi gas. The cases of strong and weak coupling to the molecular field are discussed. It is found that BEC and BCS states give rise to an essentially coherent molecular field with a momentum distribution determined by the zero-point motion in the confining potential. On the other hand, a normal Fermi gas and the unpaired atoms in the BCS state give rise to a molecular field with a broad momentum distribution and thermal number statistics. It is shown that the first-order correlations of the molecules can be used to measure second-order correlations of the initial atomic state.

Abstract:
We analyze the full nonlinear dynamics of the four-wave mixing between an incident beam of fermions and a fermionic density grating. We find that when the number of atoms in the beam is comparable to the number of atoms forming the grating, the dephasing of that grating, which normally leads to a decay of its amplitude, is suppressed. Instead, the density grating and the beam density exhibit large nonlinear coupled amplitude oscillations. In this case four-wave mixing can persist for much longer times compared to the case of negligible back-action. We also evaluate the efficiency of the four-wave mixing and show that it can be enhanced by producing an initial density grating with an amplitude that is less than the maximum value. These results indicate that efficient four-wave mixing in fermionic alkali gases should be experimentally observable.

Abstract:
The quasiparticle excitations and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of atoms at zero temperature is studied. The Fermi gas is assumed to be either in the normal state or to have undergone a phase transition to a superfluid state by forming Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate exhibit a dynamical instability due to a resonant exchange of energy and momentum with quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi gas. The stability regime for the bosons depends on whether the Fermi gas is in the normal state or in the superfluid state. We show that the energy gap in the quasiparticle spectrum for the superfluid state stabilizes the low energy energy excitations of the condensate. In the stable regime, we calculate the boson quasiparticle spectrum, which is modified by the fluctuations in the density of the Fermi gas.