Abstract:
We have searched for B_{s}^{0}->hh decays, where h stands for a charged or neutral kaon, or a charged pion. These results are based on a 23.6 fb^{-1} data sample collected with the Belle detector on the \Upsilon(5S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider, containing 1.25x10^6 B_{s}^{(*)}\bar{B}_{s}^{(*)} events. We observe the decay B_{s}^{0}->K^{+}K^{-} and measure its branching fraction, \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^{+}K^{-}) = [3.8_{-0.9}^{+1.0}(\mathrm{stat})\pm 0.5(\mathrm{syst})\pm 0.5(f_s)] \times 10^{-5}. The first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third error is due to the uncertainty in the B^0_s production fraction in $e^+e^-\to b\bar{b}$ events. No significant signals are seen in other decay modes, and we set upper limits at 90% confidence level: \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^-\pi^{+})< 2.6 \times 10^{-5}, \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->\pi^{+}\pi^{-})< 1.2 \times 10^{-5} and \mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0}->K^0\bar{K}^0) < 6.6\times 10^{-5}.

Abstract:
During the boreal spring of 1966, a warm-core eddy is identified in the upper South China Sea (SCS) west of the Philippines through an analysis of the U.S. Navy’s Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set. This eddy occurred before the development of the northern summer monsoon and disappeared afterward. We propose that this eddy is a result of the radiative warming during spring and the downwelling due to the anticyclonic forcing at the surface. Our hypothesis suggests an air-sea feedback scenario that may explain the development and withdrawal of the summer monsoon over the SCS. The development phase of the warm-core eddy in this hypothesis is tested by using the Princeton Ocean model. Authors are grateful to Yongfu Qian and Shihua Lu for discussion. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research NOMP AND NAMP Programs, and by the Naval Oceanographic Office.

Abstract:
Ambulance response times in Santa Barbara County for 2006 are analyzed using point process techniques, including kernel intensity estimates and K-functions. Clusters of calls result in significantly higher response times, and this effect is quantified. In particular, calls preceded by other calls within 20 km and within the previous hour are significantly more likely to result in violations. This effect appears to be especially pronounced within semi-rural neighborhoods.[WestJEM. 2009;10:42-47.]

Abstract:
We have studied numerically the evolution and decay of axion strings. These global defects decay mainly by axion emission and thus contribute to the cosmological axion density. The relative importance of this source relative to misalignment production of axions depends on the spectrum. Radiation spectra for various string loop configurations are presented. They support the contention that the string decay contribution is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution from misalignment.

Abstract:
We discuss the appearance at the QCD phase transition, and the subsequent decay, of axion walls bounded by strings in N=1 axion models. We argue on intuitive grounds that the main decay mechanism is into barely relativistic axions. We present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is $<\omega_a > \simeq 7 m_a$ for $v_a/m_a \simeq 500$. $<\omega_a>$ is found to increase approximately linearly with $\ln(v_a/m_a)$. Extrapolation of this behaviour yields $<\omega_a> \sim 60 m_a$ in axion models of interest. We find that the contribution to the cosmological energy density of axions from wall decay is of the same order of magnitude as that from vacuum realignment, with however large uncertainties. The velocity dispersion of axions from wall decay is found to be larger, by a factor $10^3$ or so, than that of axions from vacuum realignment and string decay. We discuss the implications of this for the formation and evolution of axion miniclusters and for the direct detection of axion dark matter on Earth. Finally we discuss the cosmology of axion models with $N>1$ in which the domain wall problem is solved by introducing a small U$_{PQ}$(1) breaking interaction. We find that in this case the walls decay into gravitational waves.

Abstract:
The recently increasing explorations for cavity optomechanical coupling assisted by a single atom or an atomic ensemble have opened an experimentally accessible fashion to interface quantum optics and nano (micro) -mechanical systems. In this paper, we study in details such composite quantum dynamics of photon, phonon and atoms, specified by the triple coupling, which only exists in this triple hybrid system: The cavity QED system with a movable end mirror. We exactly diagonalize the Hamiltonian of the triple hybrid system under the parametric resonance condition. We find that, with the rotating-wave approximation, the hybrid system is modeled by a generalized spin-orbit coupling where the orbital angular momentum operator is defined through a Jordan-Schwinger realization with two bosonic modes, corresponding to the mirror oscillation and the single mode photon of the cavity. In the quasi-classical limit of very large angular momentum, this system will behave like a standard cavity-QED system described by the Jaynes-Cummings model as the angular momentum operators are transformed to bosonic operators of a single mode. We test this observation with an experimentally accessible system with the atom in the cavity with a moving mirror.

Abstract:
We discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is $<\omega_a > \simeq 7 m_a$ for $v_a/m_a\simeq 500$. $<\omega_a>$ is found to increase approximately linearly with $\ln(v_a/m_a)$. Extrapolation of this behaviour yields $<\omega_a> \simeq 60 m_a$ in axion models of interest.

Abstract:
We give a systematic discussion of the contributions to the cosmological energy density in axions from vacuum realignment, string decay and wall decay. We call these the cold axion populations because their kinetic energy per particle is at all times much less than the ambient temperature. In case there is no inflation after the Peccei-Quinn phase transition, the value of the axion mass for which axions contribute the critical energy density for closure is estimated to be of order $6 \cdot 10^{-6}$ eV, with large uncertainties. It is emphasized that there are two groups of cold axions differing in velocity dispersion by a factor of order $10^3$.

Abstract:
We report measurements of the branching fractions and CP asymmetries for B^+- -> eta h^+- (h = K or pi) and the observation of the decay B^0 -> eta K^0 from the final data sample of 772x10^6 BBbar pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider. The measured branching fractions are Br(B^+- -> eta K^+-) = (2.12 +- 0.23 +- 0.11)x10^-6}, Br(B^+- -> eta pi^+-) = (4.07 +- 0.26 +- 0.21)x10^{-6} and Br(B^0 -> eta K^0) = (1.27^{+0.33}_{-0.29} +- 0.08)x10^-6, where the last decay is observed for the first time with a significance of 5.4 standard deviations (\sigma). We also find evidence for CP violation in the charged B modes, A_{CP}(B^+- -> eta K^+-) = -0.38 +- 0.11 +- 0.01 and A_{CP}(B^+- -> eta pi^+- = -0.19 +- 0.06 +- 0.01 with significances of 3.8 sigma and 3.0 sigma, respectively. For all measurements, the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

Abstract:
This paper revisits the problem of the string decay contribution to the axion cosmological energy density. We show that this contribution is proportional to the average relative increase when axion strings decay of a certain quantity $N_{\rm ax}$ which we define. We carry out numerical simulations of the evolution and decay of circular and non-circular string loops, of bent strings with ends held fixed, and of vortex-antivortex pairs in two dimensions. In the case of string loops and of vortex-antivortex pairs, $N_{\rm ax}$ decreases by approximately 20%. In the case of bent strings, $N_{\rm ax}$ remains constant or increases slightly. Our results imply that the string decay contribution to the axion energy density is of the same order of magnitude as the well-understood contribution from vacuum realignment.