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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 310345 matches for " C. O'Dea "
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Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, Self Efficacy and Behaviors in Teachers and Children after Implementation of the “Healthy Active Kids” Online Program in Australian Elementary Schools  [PDF]
Jennifer A. ODea
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.84031
Abstract: The aims were to examine change in nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self efficacy and attitudes in a cohort of 23 teachers and 304 year 5 and 6 children after the “Healthy Active Kids” online program and to assess any behavioral change in children’s self reported nutrition and physical activity behaviors and investigate the predictors of nutrition knowledge gain in teachers and children. Results found significant (p < 0.0001) increases in teacher and student knowledge of the five food groups; key nutrients provided by each food group, The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; food labelling laws, identification of common names for fats, sugars and salts on food labels, food proportions on the Healthy Food Plate and the level and percentage of water in the human body and human brain. Teacher attitudes towards the importance of nutrition and diet and self efficacy related to teaching nutrition in class improved (p < 0.01). The final regression model for predictors of the dependent variable, knowledge gain in students was R = 0.53, Adjusted R square = 0.28 (F = 4.76, p < 0.01) indicating that 28% of the variation in knowledge gain was predicted by the negative (low) Time 1 knowledge. Changes to eating habits reported by children were “drinking more water each day” (89.1%) and “eating foods from the five food groups each day” (76.2%); “sharing information about food labels with your family” (52.4%); “reading food labels when you go shopping” (50.0%); “changing what is on your dinner plate each night” (44.2%); “vegetables that you eat now that you didn’t eat before” (42.1%) and “fruits that you eat now” (39%). Results suggest that the development of basic nutrition knowledge is still very important for both teachers and students, but that other factors such as self efficacy, empowerment and skill development also contribute to nutrition behavior change in children.
A Model For Polarised Microwave Foreground Emission From Interstellar Dust
D. T. O'Dea,C. N. Clark,C. R. Contaldi,C. J. MacTavish
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19851.x
Abstract: The upcoming generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments face a major challenge in detecting the weak cosmic B-mode signature predicted as a product of primordial gravitational waves. To achieve the required sensitivity these experiments must have impressive control of systematic effects and detailed understanding of the foreground emission that will influence the signal. In this paper, we present templates of the intensity and polarisation of emission from one of the main Galactic foregrounds, interstellar dust. These are produced using a model which includes a 3D description of the Galactic magnetic field, examining both large and small scales. We also include in the model the details of the dust density, grain alignment and the intrinsic polarisation of the emission from an individual grain. We present here Stokes parameter template maps at 150GHz and provide an on-line repository (http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/c.contaldi/fgpol) for these and additional maps at frequencies that will be targeted by upcoming experiments such as EBEX, Spider and SPTpol.
A complete sample of GHz-Peaked-Spectrum radio sources and its radio properties
C. Stanghellini,C. P. O'Dea,D. Dallacasa,S. A. Baum,R. Fanti,C. Fanti
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998270
Abstract: We define a complete sample of thirty-three GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) radio sources based on their spectral properties. We present measurements of the radio spectra and polarization of the complete sample and a list of additional GPS sources which fail one or more criteria to be included in the complete sample. The majority of the data have been obtained from quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency observations at the Very Large Array (VLA) during 3 observing sessions. Low frequency data from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and from the literature have been combined with the VLA data in order to better define the spectral shape. The objects presented here show a rather wide range of spectral indices at high and low frequencies, including a few cases where the spectral index below the turnover is close to the theoretical value of 2.5 typical of self-absorbed incoherent synchrotron emission. Faint and diffuse extended emission is found in about 10% of the sources. In the majority of the GPS sources, the fractional polarization is found to be very low, consistent with the residual instrumental polarization of 0.3%.
VLBA observations of GHz-Peaked-Spectrum radio sources at 15 GHz
C. Stanghellini,D. Dallacasa,C. P. O'Dea,S. A. Baum,R. Fanti,C. Fanti
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011101
Abstract: We present VLBA observations at 15 GHz of ten GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources. The cores are often difficult or impossible to locate. When likely cores are found, they account for a small fraction of the flux density in GPS galaxies - around or below 2%, while in GPS quasars they can account for more than 20% of the total flux density. We detect low polarization in the GPS sources -- i.e., typically less than a few percent and often less than one percent. This establishes that low polarization in the parsec scale structure is an important defining characteristic of the GPS sources. The dichotomy in the radio morphology versus optical identification, i.e., galaxies are symmetric and quasars are not, is basically confirmed from these new data, which also indicate that the radio emission from GPS quasars is dominated by a jet, with often a weak or hidden core, suggesting they are at moderate angles to the line of sight, and so are only moderately beamed.
Modelling temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: sensitivity to model type and surface forcing
C. K. O'Neill,J. A. Polton,J. T. Holt,E. J. O'Dea
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/osd-9-649-2012
Abstract: Three shelf sea models are compared against observed surface temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: a 7 km NEMO model, and 12 km and 1.8 km POLCOMS models. Each model is run with two different surface forcing datasets of different resolutions. Comparisons with a variety of observations from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory show that increasing the surface forcing resolution improves the modelled surface temperature in all the models, in particular reducing the summer warm bias and winter cool bias. The response of surface salinity is more varied with improvements in some areas and deterioration in others. The 7 km NEMO model performs as well as the 1.8 km POLCOMS model when measured by overall skill scores although the sources of error in the models are different. NEMO is too weakly stratified in Liverpool Bay, whereas POLCOMS is too strongly stratified. The horizontal salinity gradient, which is too strong in POLCOMS, is better reproduced by NEMO which uses a more diffusive horizontal advection scheme. This leads to improved semi-diurnal variability in salinity in NEMO at a mooring site located in the Liverpool Bay ROFI area.
Modelling temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: sensitivity to model type and surface forcing
C. K. O'Neill,J. A. Polton,J. T. Holt,E. J. O'Dea
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/os-8-903-2012
Abstract: Three shelf sea models are compared against observed surface temperature and salinity in Liverpool Bay and the Irish Sea: a 7 km NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model, and 12 km and 1.8 km POLCOMS (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System) models. Each model is run with two different surface forcing datasets of different resolutions. Comparisons with a variety of observations from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory show that increasing the surface forcing resolution improves the modelled surface temperature in all the models, in particular reducing the summer warm bias and winter cool bias. The response of surface salinity is more varied with improvements in some areas and deterioration in others. The 7 km NEMO model performs as well as the 1.8 km POLCOMS model when measured by overall skill scores, although the sources of error in the models are different. NEMO is too weakly stratified in Liverpool Bay, whereas POLCOMS is too strongly stratified. The horizontal salinity gradient, which is too strong in POLCOMS, is better reproduced by NEMO which uses a more diffusive horizontal advection scheme. This leads to improved semi-diurnal variability in salinity in NEMO at a mooring site located in the Liverpool Bay ROFI (region of freshwater influence) area.
Rotation-Measures across Parsec-scale Jets of FRI radio galaxies
P. Kharb,D. C. Gabuzda,C. P. O'Dea,P. Shastri,S. A. Baum
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/694/2/1485
Abstract: We present the results of a parsec-scale polarization study of three FRI radio galaxies - 3C66B, 3C78 and 3C264 - obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array at 5, 8 and 15 GHz. Parsec-scale polarization has been detected in a large number of beamed radio-loud active galactic nuclei, but in only a handful of the relatively unbeamed radio galaxies. We report here the detection of parsec-scale polarization at one or more frequencies in all three FRI galaxies studied. We detect Faraday rotation measures of the order of a few hundred rad/m^2 in the nuclear jet regions of 3C78 and 3C264. In 3C66B polarization was detected at 8 GHz only. A transverse rotation measure gradient is observed across the jet of 3C78. The inner-jet magnetic field, corrected for Faraday rotation, is found to be aligned along the jet in both 3C78 and 3C264, although the field becomes orthogonal further from the core in 3C78. The RM values in 3C78 and 3C264 are similar to those previously observed in nearby radio galaxies. The transverse RM gradient in 3C78, the increase in the degree of polarization at the jet edge, the large rotation in the polarization angles due to Faraday rotation and the low depolarization between frequencies, suggests that a layer surrounding the jet with a sufficient number of thermal electrons and threaded by a toroidal or helical magnetic field is a good candidate for the Faraday rotating medium. This suggestion is tentatively supported by Hubble Space Telescope optical polarimetry but needs to be examined in a greater number of sources.
A Multiwavelength Study of Three Hybrid Blazars
E. C. Stanley,P. Kharb,M. L. Lister,H. L. Marshall,C. O'Dea,S. Baum
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045-188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216-038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045-188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216-038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045-188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.
Additional risk factors for infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens in healthcare-associated infection: a large cohort study
Cardoso Teresa,Ribeiro Orquídea,Arag?o Irene César,Costa-Pereira Altamiro
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-375
Abstract: Background There is a lack of consensus regarding the definition of risk factors for healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). The purpose of this study was to identify additional risk factors for HCAI, which are not included in the current definition of HCAI, associated with infection by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, in all hospitalized infected patients from the community. Methods This 1-year prospective cohort study included all patients with infection admitted to a large, tertiary care, university hospital. Risk factors not included in the HCAI definition, and independently associated with MDR pathogen infection, namely MDR Gram-negative (MDR-GN) and ESKAPE microorganisms (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species, carbapenem-hydrolyzing Klebsiella pneumonia and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species), were identified by logistic regression among patients admitted from the community (either with community-acquired or HCAI). Results There were 1035 patients with infection, 718 from the community. Of these, 439 (61%) had microbiologic documentation; 123 were MDR (28%). Among MDR: 104 (85%) had MDR-GN and 41 (33%) had an ESKAPE infection. Independent risk factors associated with MDR and MDR-GN infection were: age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.7 and 1.5, p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively), and hospitalization in the previous year (between 4 and 12 months previously) (adjusted OR = 2.0 and 1,7, p = 0.008 and p = 0.048, respectively). Infection by pathogens from the ESKAPE group was independently associated with previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 7.2, p < 0.001) and a Karnofsky index <70 (adjusted OR = 3.7, p = 0.003). Patients with infection by MDR, MDR-GN and pathogens from the ESKAPE group had significantly higher rates of inadequate antibiotic therapy than those without (46% vs 7%, 44% vs 10%, 61% vs 15%, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that the inclusion of additional risk factors in the current definition of HCAI for MDR pathogen infection, namely age >60 years, Karnofsky index <70, hospitalization in the previous year, and previous antibiotic therapy, may be clinically beneficial for early diagnosis, which may decrease the rate of inadequate antibiotic therapy among these patients.
Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia
Julie Brimblecombe, Megan Ferguson, Selma C. Liberato, Kerin O'Dea, Malcolm Riley
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083587
Abstract: Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (?90%) and refined cereals (?90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure.
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