Abstract:
The competition between tunneling and interactions in bosonic lattice models generates a whole variety of different quantum phases. While, in the presence of a single species interacting via on-site interaction, the phase diagram presents only superfluid or Mott insulating phases, for long-range interactions or multiple species, exotic phases such as supersolid (SS) or pair-superfluid (PSF) appear. In this work, we show for the first time that the co-existence of effective multiple species and long-range interactions leads to the formation of a novel pair-supersolid (PSS) phase, namely a supersolid of composites. We propose a possible implementation with dipolar bosons in a bilayer two-dimensional optical lattice.

Abstract:
We investigate the physics of dipolar bosons in a two dimensional optical lattice. It is known that due to the long-range character of dipole-dipole interaction, the ground state phase diagram of a gas of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice presents novel quantum phases, like checkerboard and supersolid phases. In this paper, we consider the properties of the system beyond its ground state, finding that it is characterised by a multitude of almost degenerate metastable states, often competing with the ground state. This makes dipolar bosons in a lattice similar to a disordered system and opens possibilities of using them for quantum memories.

Abstract:
We study the physics of ultracold dipolar bosons in optical lattices. We show that dipole-dipole interactions lead to the appearance of many insulating metastable states. We study the stability and lifetime of these states using a generalization of the instanton theory. We investigate also possibilities to prepare, control and manipulate these states using time dependent superlattice modifications and modulations. We show that the transfer from one metastable configuration to another necessarily occurs via superfluid states, but can be controlled fully on the quantum level. We show how the metastable states can be created in the presence of the harmonic trap. Our findings open the way toward applications of the metastable states as quantum memories.

Abstract:
We study the expansion of a dilute ultracold sample of fermions initially trapped in a anisotropic harmonic trap. The expansion of the cloud provides valuable information about the state of the system and the role of interactions. In particular the time evolution of the deformation of the expanding cloud behaves quite differently depending on whether the system is in the normal or in the superfluid phase. For the superfluid phase, we predict an inversion of the deformation of the sample, similarly to what happens with Bose-Einstein condensates. Viceversa, in the normal phase, the inversion of the aspect ratio is never achieved, if the mean field interaction is attractive and collisions are negligible.

Abstract:
Correlations between a composite boson and a fermion pair are considered in the context of the crossover theory of fermionic to bosonic superfluidity. It is shown that such correlations are the minimal ingredients needed in a many-body theory to generate the right boson-boson scattering length in the Bose-Einstein limit of the crossover.

Abstract:
We investigate the superfluid properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a one dimensional periodic potential. We study, both analytically (in the tight binding limit) and numerically, the Bloch chemical potential, the Bloch energy and the Bogoliubov dispersion relation, and we introduce {\it two} different, density dependent, effective masses and group velocities. The Bogoliubov spectrum predicts the existence of sound waves, and the arising of energetic and dynamical instabilities at critical values of the BEC quasi-momentum which dramatically affect its coherence properties. We investigate the dependence of the dipole and Bloch oscillation frequencies in terms of an effective mass averaged over the density of the condensate. We illustrate our results with several animations obtained solving numerically the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

Abstract:
We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behaviour of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.

Abstract:
We study a gas of dipolar Bosons confined in a two-dimensional optical lattice. Dipoles are considered to point freely in both up and down directions perpendicular to the lattice plane. This results in a nearest neighbor repulsive (attractive) interaction for aligned (anti-aligned) dipoles. We find regions of parameters where the ground state of the system exhibits insulating phases with ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic ordering, as well as with rational values of the average magnetization. Evidence for the existence of a novel counterflow supersolid quantum phase is also presented.

Abstract:
This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type models, and can be brought to a strongly correlated regime. The physical properties of such gases, dominated by the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, are discussed using the mean-field approximations, and exact Quantum Monte Carlo techniques (the Worm algorithm).

Abstract:
This article reviews the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the study of ultracold gases made of bosonic particles interacting via the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, in addition to the short-range and isotropic contact interaction usually at work in ultracold gases. The specific properties emerging from the dipolar interaction are emphasized, from the mean-field regime valid for dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, to the strongly correlated regimes reached for dipolar bosons in optical lattices.