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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 542250 matches for " C. M. Mader "
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The three-dimensional Ising model: A paradigm of liquid-vapor coexistence in nuclear multifragmentation
C. M. Mader,A. Chappars,J. B. Elliott,L. G. Moretto,L. Phair,G. J. Wozniak
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.68.064601
Abstract: Clusters in the three-dimensional Ising model rigorously obey reducibility and thermal scaling up to the critical temperature. The barriers extracted from Arrhenius plots depend on the cluster size as $B \propto A^{\sigma}$ where $\sigma$ is a critical exponent relating the cluster size to the cluster surface. All the Arrhenius plots collapse into a single Fisher-like scaling function indicating liquid-vapor-like phase coexistence and the univariant equilibrium between percolating clusters and finite clusters. The compelling similarity with nuclear multifragmentation is discussed.
Models of tumourigenesis and their relevance for tumour pharmacology
Robert M Mader
European Journal of Oncology Pharmacy , 2008,
Abstract: Understanding the complex interplay between tumour biology and tumour pharmacology is the most promising approach to implement novel and rationally designed pharmacologic concepts. The current models of tumourigenesis are an indispensable impetus to this learning process.
Metadata and Data Management for the Keck Observatory Archive
H. D. Tran,J. Holt,R. W. Goodrich,J. A. Mader,M. Swain,A. C. Laity,M. Kong,C. R. Gelino,G. B. Berriman
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1117/12.2054830
Abstract: A collaboration between the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) in Hawaii and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) in California, the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) was commissioned in 2004 to archive observing data from WMKO, which operates two classically scheduled 10 m ground-based telescopes. The observing data from Keck is not suitable for direct ingestion into the archive since the metadata contained in the original FITS headers lack the information necessary for proper archiving. Coupled with different standards among instrument builders and the heterogeneous nature of the data inherent in classical observing, in which observers have complete control of the instruments and their observations, the data pose a number of technical challenges for KOA. We describe the methodologies and tools that we have developed to successfully address these difficulties, adding content to the FITS headers and "retrofitting" the metadata in order to support archiving Keck data, especially those obtained before the archive was designed. With the expertise gained from having successfully archived observations taken with all eight currently active instruments at WMKO, we have developed lessons learned from handling this complex array of heterogeneous metadata that help ensure a smooth ingestion of data not only for current but also future instruments, as well as a better experience for the archive user.
Expression of thymidine phosphorylase in peripheral blood cells of breast cancer patients is not increased by paclitaxel
Rupert Bartsch, Guenther G Steger, Birgit Forstner, Catharina Wenzel, Ursula Pluschnig, Blanka Rizovski, Gabriela Altorjai, Christoph C Zielinski, Robert M Mader
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6904-7-7
Abstract: A total of 128 consecutive blood samples were collected from eight patients with advanced breast cancer receiving paclitaxel weekly at a dose of 80 mg/m2. To assess the expression of TP in blood cells, samples were collected prior to first therapy, at the end of infusion, and up to 15 days thereafter. This procedure was repeated during the sixth application of paclitaxel. After isolation of the peripheral mononuclear blood cells, the expression of TP was assessed by ELISA. In parallel, paclitaxel level in plasma was evaluated at three selected time points as pharmacokinetic control parameter.Paclitaxel concentrations at the end of infusion did not change significantly from week 1 to week 6. The expression of TP in peripheral mononuclear blood cells decreased significantly after infusion below pretherapeutic values (p = 0.023; n = 8). After the nadir on day 3, the expression of TP increased moderately returning to baseline levels within one week. The overall picture in week 6 was similar to week 1. Using a trend analysis, neither a short-term nor a long-term induction of TP was observed.TP in peripheral mononuclear blood cells was hardly regulated under therapy with paclitaxel. Therefore, no increased haematotoxicity due to TP upregulation is expected from the combination of taxanes and capecitabine.In advanced breast cancer, combinations of cytotoxic agents with synergistic antitumour effect deserve particular attention. Different groups reported increased response rates and prolonged time to disease progression in combination therapy as compared to single-agent treatment. Yet, combining cytotoxic drugs is usually associated with increased toxicity. A synergistic effect has been hypothesized for paclitaxel and capecitabine, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. Taxanes are a group of compounds that interact with the β subunit of tubulin and induce tubulin polymerization thus interfering with the normal balance between polymerization and its contrary, depolymerisation. This m
The K-Band Galaxy Luminosity Function
C. S. Kochanek,M. A. Pahre,E. E. Falco,J. P. Huchra,J. Mader,T. H Jarrett,T. Chester,R. Cutri,S. E. Schneider
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/322488
Abstract: We measured the K-band luminosity function using a complete sample of 4192 morphologically-typed 2MASS galaxies with 7 < K < 11.25 mag spread over 2.12 str. Early-type (T < -0.5) and late-type (T > -0.5) galaxies have similarly shaped luminosity functions, alpha_e=-0.92+/-0.10 and alpha_l=-0.87+/-0.09. The early-type galaxies are brighter, M_*e=-23.53+/-0.06 mag compared to M_*l=-22.98\pm0.06 mag, but less numerous, n_*e=(0.0045+/-0.0006)h^3/Mpc^3 compared to n_*l=(0.0101+/-0.0013)h^3/Mpc^3 for H_0=100h km/s Mpc, such that the late-type galaxies slightly dominate the K-band luminosity density, j_late/j_early=1.17+/-0.12. Our morphological classifications are internally consistent, consistent with previous classifications and lead to luminosity functions unaffected by the estimated uncertainties in the classifications. These luminosity functions accurately predict the K-band number counts and redshift distributions for K < 18 mag, beyond which the results depend on galaxy evolution and merger histories.
Hepatotoxicity of tocilizumab and anakinra in rheumatoid arthritis: management decisions
Mahamid M, Mader R, Safadi R
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPAA.S24004
Abstract: totoxicity of tocilizumab and anakinra in rheumatoid arthritis: management decisions Case Series (3226) Total Article Views Authors: Mahamid M, Mader R, Safadi R Published Date October 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 39 - 43 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPAA.S24004 Mahmud Mahamid1,3, Reuven Mader4, Rifaat Safadi1,2 1Liver Unit, Holy Family Hospital, Nazareth, Israel; 2Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 4Rheumatology Unit, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel Background: Elevation of liver enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab (Actemra ) or anakinra (Kineret ) is a well-documented phenomenon. However, characterization of liver histology has not been defined in most cases. Similarly, the factors involved in decisions regarding discontinuation of treatment and outcome have not been discussed in the literature to any significant extent. Cases: Two women with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to standard therapies are reported here. One was treated with tocilizumab and the other with anakinra, and both developed toxic liver effects. Liver biopsy in both cases showed focal necrosis of hepatocytes – a hallmark of drug toxicity – with steatosis and early fibrosis. Inflammatory infiltrates were prominent in the patient treated with anakinra but not in the tocilizumab-treated patient. However, FibroTest (Assistance publique – H pitaux de Paris, Paris, France) in the latter patient showed an inflammatory activity of A2 and was staged as F2, and the histology also showed hemorrhagic areas. Although both patients were overweight and both had been exposed to steroids, the steatosis and steatohepatitis were considered to be related to drug hepatotoxicity. Other possible etiologies for liver injury were excluded. Discontinuation of anakinra led to rapid normalization of liver enzymes. The patient receiving tocilizumab developed hepatosplenomegaly but had normal liver enzymes. In spite of the hepatosplenomegaly, the tocilizumab treatment was continued since the patient had not responded to other drugs. There was a good response to the tocilizumab treatment and the liver biopsy showed only insignificant, reversible liver injury. At follow-up at 6-months the patient remains stable. Conclusion: As cases showing tocilizumab or anakinra liver toxicity are appearing more frequently to the authors, a full assessment for liver injury is recommended in patients given those drugs, with careful consideration of the decision to continue or discontinue treatment. Further studies with long-term follow-up analysis are mandatory to guide appropriate management strategies.
Hepatotoxicity of tocilizumab and anakinra in rheumatoid arthritis: management decisions
Mahamid M,Mader R,Safadi R
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: Mahmud Mahamid1,3, Reuven Mader4, Rifaat Safadi1,2 1Liver Unit, Holy Family Hospital, Nazareth, Israel; 2Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 3Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 4Rheumatology Unit, Ha’emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel Background: Elevation of liver enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with tocilizumab (Actemra ) or anakinra (Kineret ) is a well-documented phenomenon. However, characterization of liver histology has not been defined in most cases. Similarly, the factors involved in decisions regarding discontinuation of treatment and outcome have not been discussed in the literature to any significant extent. Cases: Two women with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to standard therapies are reported here. One was treated with tocilizumab and the other with anakinra, and both developed toxic liver effects. Liver biopsy in both cases showed focal necrosis of hepatocytes – a hallmark of drug toxicity – with steatosis and early fibrosis. Inflammatory infiltrates were prominent in the patient treated with anakinra but not in the tocilizumab-treated patient. However, FibroTest (Assistance publique – H pitaux de Paris, Paris, France) in the latter patient showed an inflammatory activity of A2 and was staged as F2, and the histology also showed hemorrhagic areas. Although both patients were overweight and both had been exposed to steroids, the steatosis and steatohepatitis were considered to be related to drug hepatotoxicity. Other possible etiologies for liver injury were excluded. Discontinuation of anakinra led to rapid normalization of liver enzymes. The patient receiving tocilizumab developed hepatosplenomegaly but had normal liver enzymes. In spite of the hepatosplenomegaly, the tocilizumab treatment was continued since the patient had not responded to other drugs. There was a good response to the tocilizumab treatment and the liver biopsy showed only insignificant, reversible liver injury. At follow-up at 6-months the patient remains stable. Conclusion: As cases showing tocilizumab or anakinra liver toxicity are appearing more frequently to the authors, a full assessment for liver injury is recommended in patients given those drugs, with careful consideration of the decision to continue or discontinue treatment. Further studies with long-term follow-up analysis are mandatory to guide appropriate management strategies. Keywords: anakinra, interleukin receptors, liver injury, rheumatoid arthritis, tocilizumab
Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research
C. W. Arnold,F. Tovesson,K. Meierbachtol,T. Bredeweg,M. Jandel,H. J. Jorgenson,A. Laptev,G. Rusev,D. W. Shields,M. White,R. E. Blakeley,D. M. Mader,A. A. Hecht
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.07.001
Abstract: A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEterminiation in fission Research (SPIDER) is a $2E-2v$ spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with $\alpha$-particles from $^{229}$Th and its decay chain and $\alpha$-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from $^{252}$Cf. Each detector module is comprised of a thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times on the order of 70 ns were measured with 200 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to precision of 0.5%. An ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.
GRB 021004: a Massive Progenitor Star Surrounded by Shells
Bradley E. Schaefer,C. L. Gerardy,P. Hoflich,A. Panaitescu,R. Quimby,J. Mader,G. J. Hill,P. Kumar,J. C. Wheeler,M. Eracleous,S. Sigurdsson,P. Meszaros,B. Zhang,L. Wang,F. Hessman,V. Petrosian
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/373896
Abstract: We present spectra of the optical transient of GRB021004 obtained with the Hobby-Eberly telescope starting 15.48, 20.31 hours, and 4.84 days after the burst and a spectrum obtained with the H. J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope starting 14.31 hours after the burst. GRB021004 is the first afterglow whose spectrum is dominated by absorption lines from high ionization species with multiple velocity components separated by up to 3000 km/s. We argue that these lines are likely to come from shells around a massive progenitor star. The high velocities and high ionizations arise from a combination of acceleration and flash-ionization by the burst photons and the wind velocity and steady ionization by the progenitor. We also analyze the broad-band spectrum and the light curve. We distinguish six components along the line of sight: (1) The z~2.293 absorption lines arise from the wind of a massive star. For a mass loss rate of ~6 x 10^{-5} solar masses per year, this component also provides the external medium to create the afterglow light. (2) A second shell produces absorption lines with a relative velocity of 560 km/s, and this is associated with the shell created by the fast massive star wind blowing a bubble in the preceding slow wind at a radial distance of order 10 pc. (3) More distant clouds within the host galaxy lie between 30-2500 pc, where they have been ionized by the burst. (4-6) The massive star wind has clumps with radii and over-densities of 0.022, 0.063, and 0.12 parsecs and 50%, 10%, and 10% respectively. The immediate progenitor of the burster could either be a WC-type Wolf-Rayet star or a highly evolved star whose original mass was just too small for it to become a WN-type Wolf-Rayet star.
Predicting for activity of second-line trastuzumab-based therapy in her2-positive advanced breast cancer
Rupert Bartsch, Catharina De Vries, Ursula Pluschnig, Peter Dubsky, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Simon P Gampenrieder, Margaretha Rudas, Robert M Mader, Andrea Rottenfusser, Christoph Wiltschke, Michael Gnant, Christoph C Zielinski, Guenther G Steger
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-367
Abstract: Ninety-seven patients treated with > 1 line of trastuzumab-containing therapy were available for this analysis. Her2-status was determined by immunohistochemistry and re-analyzed by FISH if a score of 2+ was gained. Time to progression (TTP) on second-line therapy was defined as primary study endpoint. TTP and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazards model, multinomial logistic regression) were applied in order to identify factors associated with TTP, response, OS, and incidence of brain metastases. p values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance.Median TTP on second-line trastuzumab-based therapy was 7 months (95% CI 5.74-8.26), and 8 months (95% CI 6.25-9.74) on first-line, respectively (n.s.). In the multivariate models, none of the clinical or histopthological features could reliably predict for activity of second-line trastuzumab-based treatment. OS was 43 months suggesting improved survival in patients treated with trastuzumab in multiple-lines. A significant deterioration of cardiac function was observed in three patients; 40.2% developed brain metastases while on second-line trastuzumab or thereafter.Trastuzumab beyond progression showed considerable activity. None of the variables investigated correlated with activity of second-line therapy. In order to predict for activity of second-line trastuzumab, it appears necessary to evaluate factors known to confer trastuzumab-resistance.Human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her) 2 (c-erb-B2) is a member of the Her-family of transmembrane receptor proteins [1]. As no ligand has been identified, Her2 is believed to act mainly via amplification of signals from other members of the Her-family (EGFR, Her3, Her4) by forming heterodimers [2]. Key proteins involved in Her2 signal-transduction include phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase and the ras/raf cascade. Ultimately, activation of those signalling pathways
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