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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 381762 matches for " C. L. Fryer "
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Mass Limits For Black Hole Formation
C. L. Fryer
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307647
Abstract: We present a series of two-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations for a range of progenitor masses and different input physics. These models predict a range of supernova energies and compact remnant masses. In particular, we study two mechanisms for black hole formation: prompt collapse and delayed collapse due to fallback. For massive progenitors above 20 solar masses, after a hydrodynamic time for the helium core (a few minutes to a few hours), fallback drives the compact object beyond the maximum neutron star mass causing it to collapse into a black hole. With the current accuracy of the models, progenitors more massive than 40 solar masses form black holes directly with no supernova explosion (if rotating, these black holes may be the progenitors of gamma-ray bursts). We calculate the mass distribution of black holes formed, and compare these predictions to the observations, which represent a small biased subset of the black hole population. Uncertainties in these estimates are discussed.
Compact Object Formation and the Supernova Explosion Engine
C. L. Fryer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/24/244002
Abstract: When a massive star ends its life, its core collapses, forming a neutron star or black hole and producing some of the most energetic explosions in the universe. Core-collapse supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts are the violent signatures of compact remnant formation. As such, both fields are intertwined and, coupled with theory, observations of transients can help us better understand compact remnants just as neutron star and black hole observations can constrain the supernova and gamma-ray burst engine. We review these ties in this paper.
X-ray spectral features from GRBs: Predictions of progenitor models
M. Boettcher,C. L. Fryer
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318346
Abstract: We investigate the potentially observable prompt or delayed X-ray spectral features from the currently popular gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. During the evolution of many GRB progenitors, a disk around the central GRB source is produced. Shock heating as the GRB ejecta collide with the disk may produce observable X-ray features. We first summarize predictions deduced from previous calculations which invoke photoionization and relativistic blast waves. We then calculate the quasi-thermal X-ray line features produced assuming the ejecta are nonrelativistic (which is more likely for the disk interactions of many GRB models). In the framework of the Hypernova/Collapsar model, delayed (a few days - several months after the GRB) bursts of line-dominated, thermal X-ray emission may be expected. The He-merger scenario predicts similar X-ray emission line bursts <~ a few days after the GRB. These X-ray signatures should be observable with Chandra and XMM-Newton out to at least z ~ 1. Weak emission line features <~ a few days after the GRB may also result from the supranova GRB scenario. In all three cases, significant X-ray absorption features, in particular during the prompt GRB phase, are expected. No significant X-ray spectral features might result from compact-object binary mergers.
Core-Collapse Simulations of Rotating Stars
C. L. Fryer,A. Heger
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/309446
Abstract: We present the results from a series of two-dimensional core-collapse simulations using a rotating progenitor star. We find that the convection in these simulations is less vigorous because a) rotation weakens the core bounce which seeds the neutrino-driven convection and b) the angular momentum profile in the rotating core stabilizes against convection. The limited convection leads to explosions which occur later and are weaker than the explosions produced from the collapse of non-rotating cores. However, because the convection is constrained to the polar regions, when the explosion occurs, it is stronger along the polar axis. This asymmetric explosion can explain the polarization measurements of core-collapse supernovae. These asymmetries also provide a natural mechanism to mix the products of nucleosynthesis out into the helium and hydrogen layers of the star. We also discuss the role the collapse of these rotating stars play on the generation of magnetic fields and neutron star kicks. Given a range of progenitor rotation periods, we predict a range of supernova energies for the same progenitor mass. The critical mass for black hole formation also depends upon the rotation speed of the progenitor.
Helium Star/Black Hole Mergers: a New Gamma-Ray Burst Model
C. L. Fryer,S. E. Woosley
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311493
Abstract: We present a model for gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) in which a stellar mass black hole acquires a massive accretion disk by merging with the helium core of its red giant companion. The black hole enters the helium core after it, or its neutron star progenitor, first experiences a common envelope phase that carries it inwards through the hydrogen envelope. Accretion of the last several solar masses of helium occurs on a time scale of roughly a minute and provides a neutrino luminosity of approximately 10^51 - 10^52 erg/s. Neutrino annihilation, 0.01% to 0.1% efficient, along the rotational axis then gives a baryon loaded fireball of electron-positron pairs and radiation (about 10$^{50}$ erg total) whose beaming and relativistic interaction with circumstellar material makes the GRB (e.g., Rees & Meszaros 1992). The useful energy can be greatly increased if energy can be extracted from the rotational energy of the black hole by magnetic interaction with the disk. Such events should occur at a rate comparable to that of merging neutron stars and black hole neutron star pairs and may be responsible for long complex GRB's, but not short hard ones.
Modeling Core-Collapse Supernovae in 3-Dimensions
C. L. Fryer,M. S. Warren
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342258
Abstract: We present the first complete 3-dimensional simulations of the core-collapse of a massive star from the onset of collapse to the resultant supernova explosion. We compare the structure of the convective instabilities that occur in 3-dimensional models with those of past 2-dimensional simulations. Although the convective instabilities are clearly 3-dimensional in nature, we find that both the size-scale of the flows and the net enhancement to neutrino heating does not differ greatly between 2- and 3-dimensional models. The explosion energy, explosion timescale, and remnant mass does not differ by more than 10% between 2- and 3-dimensional simulations.
Gamma-Ray Bursts From Neutron Star Phase Transitions
C. L. Fryer,S. E. Woosley
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/305866
Abstract: The phase-transition induced collapse of a neutron star to a more compact configuration (typically a ``strange'' star) and the subsequent core bounce is often invoked as a model for gamma-ray bursts. We present the results of numerical simulations of this kind of event using realistic neutrino physics and a high density equation of state. The nature of the collapse itself is represented by the arbitrary motion of a piston deep within the star, but if any shock is to develop, the transition, or at least its final stages, must occur in less than a sonic time. Fine surface zoning is employed to adequately represent the acceleration of the shock to relativistic speeds and to determine the amount and energy of the ejecta. We find that these explosions are far too baryon-rich (ejected Mass > 0.01 solar masses) and have much too low an energy to explain gamma-ray bursts. The total energy of the ejecta having relativistic lorentz factors > 40 is less than 10^46 erg even in our most optimistic models (deep bounce, no neutrino losses or photodisintegration). However, the total energy of all the ejecta, mostly mildly relativistic, is roughly 10^51 erg and, if they occur, these events might be observed. They would also contribute to Galactic nucleosynthesis, especially the r-process, even though the most energetic layers are composed of helium and nucleons, not heavy elements.
Gamma-Ray Lines from Asymmetric Supernovae
A. L. Hungerford,C. L. Fryer,M. S. Warren
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/376776
Abstract: We present 3-dimensional SPH simulations of supernova explosions from 100 seconds to 1 year after core-bounce. By extending our modelling efforts to a 3-dimensional hydrodynamics treatment, we are able to investigate the effects of explosion asymmetries on mixing and gamma-ray line emergence in supernovae. A series of initial explosion conditions are implemented, including jet-like and equatorial asymmetries of varying degree. For comparison, symmetric explosion models are also calculated. A series of time slices from the explosion evolution are further analyzed using a 3-dimensional Monte Carlo gamma-ray transport code. The emergent hard X- and gamma-ray spectra are calculated as a function of both viewing angle and time, including trends in the gamma-ray line profiles. We find significant differences in the velocity distribution of radioactive nickel between the symmetric and asymmetric explosion models. The effects of this spatial distribution change are reflected in the overall high energy spectrum, as well as in the individual gamma-ray line profiles.
Transient Absorption Features in GRBs and Their Implications for GRB Progenitors
M. Boettcher,C. L. Fryer,C. D. Dermer
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338496
Abstract: The recent detection of a transient absorption feature in the prompt emission of GRB 990705 has sparked multiple attempts to fit this feature in terms of photoelectric absorption or resonance scattering out of the line of sight to the observer. However, the physical conditions required to reproduce the observed absorption feature turn out to be rather extreme compared to the predictions of current GRB progenitor models. In particular, strong clumping of ejecta from the GRB progenitor seems to be required. Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of supernova explosions as a guideline, we have investigated the dynamics and structure of pre-GRB ejecta predicted in various GRB progenitor models. Based on our results, combined with population synthesis studies relevant to the He-merger model, we estimate the probability of observing X-ray absorption features as seen in GRB 990705 to << 1 %. Alternatively, if the supranova model is capable of producing highly collimated long-duration GRBs, it may be a more promising candidate to produce observable, transient X-ray absorption features.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Chris L. Fryer,Kimberly C.B. New
Living Reviews in Relativity , 2011,
Abstract: Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
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