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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223348 matches for " C. Karl "
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An industrial engineering approach to laboratory automation for high throughput screening
Karl C. Menke
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s1463924600000225
Abstract: Across the pharmaceutical industry, there are a variety of approaches to laboratory automation for high throughput screening. At Sphinx Pharmaceuticals, the principles of industrial engineering have been applied to systematically identify and develop those automated solutions that provide the greatest value to the scientists engaged in lead generation.
What does a mouse tell us about neuregulin 1—cannabis interactions?
Tim Karl,Jonathon C. Arnold
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00018
Abstract: The link between cannabis and psychosis has been debated although there is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia patients carrying particular risk genes might be more sensitive to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis than other patients and healthy test subjects. Here we review the effects of cannabinoids on a mutant mouse model for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1). The studies suggest a complex interaction between cannabis and Nrg1: the neuro-behavioral effects of cannabinoids were different in Nrg1 mutant and control mice and depended on exposure time, sex, and age of test animals. This research provides the first evidence of complex cannabis-Nrg1 interactions suggesting Nrg1 as a prime target for future clinical investigations. Furthermore, it highlights that animal model research can broaden our understanding of the complex multi-factorial etiology of schizophrenia. Finally, the findings are important to preventive psychiatry: if the genes that confer genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis were identified patients at-high risk could be forewarned of the potential dangers of cannabis abuse.
Imaging of moving targets with multi-static SAR using an overcomplete dictionary
Ivana Stojanovic,William C. Karl
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2009.2038982
Abstract: This paper presents a method for imaging of moving targets using multi-static SAR by treating the problem as one of spatial reflectivity signal inversion over an overcomplete dictionary of target velocities. Since SAR sensor returns can be related to the spatial frequency domain projections of the scattering field, we exploit insights from compressed sensing theory to show that moving targets can be effectively imaged with transmitters and receivers randomly dispersed in a multi-static geometry within a narrow forward cone around the scene of interest. Existing approaches to dealing with moving targets in SAR solve a coupled non-linear problem of target scattering and motion estimation typically through matched filtering. In contrast, by using an overcomplete dictionary approach we effectively linearize the forward model and solve the moving target problem as a larger, unified regularized inversion problem subject to sparsity constraints.
Metastatic Rectal Adenocarcinoma of the Hip and Knee Joints: A Case Series  [PDF]
Adam C. Rothenberg, Karl J. Henrikson, Suzanne C. Schiffman, Mark A. Goodman
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.54039

Two cases are presented of patients with a history of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma presenting with a painful joint effusion. Both cases are potential examples of metastasis to periarticular bone with local infiltration to the synovium, which is one proposed mechanism of intrasynovial metastasis. While skeletal metastases are a relatively common occurrence in metastatic adenocarcinoma, intraarticular metastasis is extremely rare. These cases highlight the need to consider metastasis in the differential of joint swelling in the setting of a history of adenocarcinoma.

Novel p.C620L RET Mutation Detected in a Patient with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma  [PDF]
Rebecca L. Margraf, Patti M. F. Krautscheid, David C. Pattison, Karl V. Voelkerding, Rong Mao
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36089
Abstract: A patient with an apparent sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma was tested for RET germline mutations by Sanger sequencing of RET exons 10, 11, and 13-16. The patient was heterozygous for two known mutations causative of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 disorder, and both mutations were within codon 620 of RET exon 10, c.1859G > T (p.C620F) and c.1860C > G (p.C620W). In order to determine if these adjacent mutations were in cis or in trans, an unlabeled probe method and high-resolution melting analysis were utilized. The mutations were confirmed to occur in cis, representing a novel mutation, c.1859_1860delinsTG (p.C620L). Sanger sequencing of parental samples did not identify any changes at codon 620, so the p.C620L mutation is also de novo. The early age of onset for medullary thyroid carcinoma and the presence of lymph node metastasis in this patient suggests individuals with the p.C620L mutation should be treated and screened (for pheochromocytomas and parathyroid hyperplasia) as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 patients with other RET codon 620 mutations (American Thyroid Association risk level B).
Os polimorfos de carbonato de cálcio: uma síntese fácil de aragonita
Bessler, Karl E.;Rodrigues, Laécio C.;
Química Nova , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422008000100032
Abstract: aragonite is a metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate. the calcareous exoskeletons of some organisms like corals or molluscs consist essentially of aragonite. the questions of how, and why these organisms prefer the thermodynamically unstable aragonite for the construction of their hard shells are discussed. the importance of the biomineralization process for the development of new materials is outlined. in the experimental part, a very simple synthesis of polycrystalline aragonite is performed, using carbonated mineral water available at the market. the synthesized aragonite is easily identified by its infrared spectrum.
Sodium Channels as Targets for Volatile Anesthetics
Karl F. Herold,Hugh C. Hemmings Jr.
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00050
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics are still poorly understood although they are widely used in clinical settings. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetic effects on central nervous system depression. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic end points: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics at high concentrations. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions at clinical concentrations. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current (INa) and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation (h∞) toward more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed, together with enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can depress presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca2+ entry, and ultimately reduce transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more potent for glutamatergic compared to GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of their effects.
Inconsistency in the application of the adiabatic theorem
Karl-Peter Marzlin,Barry C. Sanders
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.160408
Abstract: The adiabatic theorem states that an initial eigenstate of a slowly varying Hamiltonian remains close to an instantaneous eigenstate of the Hamiltonian at a later time. We show that a perfunctory application of this statement is problematic if the change in eigenstate is significant, regardless of how closely the evolution satisfies the requirements of the adiabatic theorem. We also introduce an example of a two-level system with an exactly solvable evolution to demonstrate the inapplicability of the adiabatic approximation for a particular slowly varying Hamiltonian.
The Field Theory Approach to Percolation Processes
Hans-Karl Janssen,Uwe C. Tauber
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.aop.2004.09.011
Abstract: We review the field theory approach to percolation processes. Specifically, we focus on the so-called simple and general epidemic processes that display continuous non-equilibrium active to absorbing state phase transitions whose asymptotic features are governed respectively by the directed (DP) and dynamic isotropic percolation (dIP) universality classes. We discuss the construction of a field theory representation for these Markovian stochastic processes based on fundamental phenomenological considerations, as well as from a specific microscopic reaction-diffusion model realization. Subsequently we explain how dynamic renormalization group (RG) methods can be applied to obtain the universal properties near the critical point in an expansion about the upper critical dimensions d_c = 4 (DP) and 6 (dIP). We provide a detailed overview of results for critical exponents, scaling functions, crossover phenomena, finite-size scaling, and also briefly comment on the influence of long-range spreading, the presence of a boundary, multispecies generalizations, coupling of the order parameter to other conserved modes, and quenched disorder.
Bell’s Theorem and Instantaneous Influences at a Distance  [PDF]
Karl Hess
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.98099
Abstract: An explicit model-example is presented to simulate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiments without invoking instantaneous influences at a distance. The model-example, together with the interpretation of past experiments by Kwiat and coworkers, uncovers logical inconsistencies in the application of Bell’s theorem to actual EPR experiments. The inconsistencies originate from topological-combinatorial assumptions that are both necessary and sufficient to derive all Bell-type inequalities including those of Wigner-d’Espagnat and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt. The model-example circumvents these inconsistencies.
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