Abstract:
This article is an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work on transport in phase-coherent hybrid nanostructures, with particular emphasis on dc electrical conduction. A summary of multiple scattering theory and the quasi-classical methods is presented and comparisons between the two are made. Several paradigms of phase-coherent transport are discussed, including zero-bias anomalies, reentrant and long range proximity effects, Andreev interferometers and superconductivity-induced conductance suppression.

Abstract:
In a Bernal-stacked graphene bilayer, an electronic state in Landau level $% N=0$ is described by its guiding-center index $X$ (in the Landau gauge) and by its valley, spin, and orbital indices $\xi =\pm K,\sigma =\pm 1,$ and $% n=0,1.$ When Coulomb interaction is taken into account, the chiral two-dimensional electron gas (C2DEG) in this system can support a variety of quantum Hall ferromagnetic (QHF)\ ground states where the spins and/or valley pseudospins and/or orbital pseudospins collectively align in space. In this work, we give a comprehensive account of the phase diagram of the C2DEG at integer filling factors $\nu \in [-3,3] $ in Landau level N=0 when an electrical potential difference $\Delta_{B}$ between the two layers is varied. We consider states with or without layer, spin, or orbital coherence. For each phase, we discuss the behavior of the transport gap as a function of $\Delta_{B},$ the spectrum of collective excitations and the optical absorption due to orbital pseudospin-wave modes. We also study the effect of an external in-plane electric field on a coherent state that has both valley and spin coherence and show that it is possible, in such a state, to control the spin polarization by varying the strength of the external in-plane electric field.

Abstract:
When two fully polarized ferromagnetic (F) wires with opposite polarizations make contact with a spin-singlet superconductor, a potential-induced current in wire 1 induces a non-local current of equal magnitude and sign in wire 2. The magnitude of this current has been studied in the tunneling limit and found to decay exponentially with the distance between the contact. In this paper we propose a new structure in which this novel non-local effect is increased by orders of magnitude. We study the spin-dependent electronic transport of a diffusive nanojunction and demonstrate that when a normal diffusive region is placed between the F leads and superconductor, the non-local initially increases with the separation between the F leads, achieving a maximum and decays as a power law with increasing separation.

Abstract:
Within the microscopic Bogoliubov--de Gennes (BdG) formalism an exact quantization condition for Andreev bound states of the ferromagnetic-superconducting hybrid systems of box geometry is derived and a semi-classical formula for the density of states is obtained. The semi-classical formula is shown to agree with the exact result, even when the exchange field $h$, is much larger than the superconductor order parameter, provided $h$ is small compared with the Fermi energy.

Abstract:
Recently nanomechanical devices composed of a long stationary inner carbon nanotube and a shorter, slowly-rotating outer tube have been fabricated. In this Letter, we study the possibility of using such devices as adiabatic quantum pumps. Using the Brouwer formula, we employ a Green's function technique to determine the pumped charge from one end of the inner tube to the other, driven by the rotation of a chiral outer nanotube. We show that there is virtually no pumping if the chiral angle of the two nanotubes is the same, but for optimal chiralities the pumped charge can be a significant fraction of a theoretical upper bound.

Abstract:
We highlight a new "transverse" interference effect, arising from the coupling between electrons and holes, induced by a superconducting island in contact with a normal metal. As an example we compute the electrical conductance G of a T-shaped mesoscopic sample, formed by joining a horizontal bar of normal metal to a vertical leg of the same material. With a superconducting island located on the vertical leg and the current flowing horizontally, we examine the dependence of G on the distance L of the island from the horizontal bar. Of particular interest is the differential conductance G(E) at an applied voltage E=eV, which due to quantum interference between electrons and Andreev reflected holes, is predicted to oscillate with both L and E. For a system with a spherical Fermi surface, the period of oscillation with E is 3.142 (E_F/k_FL) and with L is 3.142 (E_F/k_F E), where E_F is the Fermi energy and k_F the Fermi wavevector.

Abstract:
We study Andreev reflection in a normal conductor-molecule-superconductor junction using a first principles approach. In particular, we focus on a family of molecules consisting of a molecular backbone and a weakly coupled side group. We show that the presence of the side group can lead to a Fano resonance in the Andreev reflection. We use a simple theoretical model to explain the results of the numerical calculations and to make predictions about the possible sub-gap resonance structures in the Andreev reflection coefficient.

Abstract:
We study the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio in magnetic multiayers with a single superconducting contact in the presence of spin-mixing processes. It has been recently shown that the GMR ratio of magnetic multilayers is strongly suppressed by the presence of a superconducting contact when spin-flipping is not allowed. In this Letter we demonstrate that the GMR ratio can be dramatically enhanced by spin-orbit interaction and/or non-collinear magnetic moments. The system is described using a tight-binding model with either s-p-d or s-d atomic orbitals per site.

Abstract:
Experiments on hybrid superconducting normal-metal structures have revealed that even in the absence of tunnel junctions the onset of superconductivity can lead to a decrease in the electrical conductance by an amount many orders of magnitude greater than $e^2/h$. In this Letter we provide a theory of this phenomenon which shows that it originates from an instability in 4 - probe conductance measurements which is absent from 2-probe measurements. We compare the zero-bias,zero-temperature 4-probe conductances $G_{N}$ and $G_{S}$ of a normal diffusive metal in contact with a superconductor in both the normal (N) and superconducting (S) states respectively. In the absence of tunnel barriers, the ensemble average of the difference $\delta G=G_{S}-G_N$ vanishes, in agreement with quasi-classical theory. However we also predict that there exists macroscopic sample specific fluctuations in $\delta G$, which lie beyond quasi-classical theory and allow large negative values of $\delta G$ to occur.

Abstract:
In this letter, we examine the effect of Coulomb interactions in the normal region of a normal-superconducting (N/S) mesoscopic structure, here the change from an attractive to a repulsive coulombic interaction, at the N/S interface, causes a shift in the order parameter phase. We show that this shift has a pronounced effect on Andreev bound states and demonstrate that the effect on Andreev scattering of non-zero order-parameter tails, can be used to probe the sign of the interaction in the normal region.