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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219529 matches for " C. Haldoupis "
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Possible evidence for partial demagnetization of electrons in the auroral E-region plasma during electron gas heating
C. Haldoupis
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A previous study, based on incoherent and coherent radar measurements, suggested that during auroral E-region electron heating conditions, the electron flow in the auroral electrojet undergoes a systematic counterclockwise rotation of several degrees relative to the E×B direction. The observational evidence is re-examined here in the light of theoretical predictions concerning E-region electron demagnetization caused by enhanced anomalous cross-field diffusion during strongly-driven Farley-Buneman instability. It is shown that the observations are in good agreement with this theory. This apparently endorses the concept of wave-induced diffusion and anomalous electron collision frequency, and consequently electron demagnetization, under circumstances of strong heating of the electron gas in the auroral electrojet plasma. We recognize, however, that the evidence for electron demagnetization presented in this report cannot be regarded as definitive because it is based on a limited set of data. More experimental research in this direction is thus needed.
E-region wind-driven electrical coupling of patchy sporadic-E and spread-F at midlatitude
S. Shalimov,C. Haldoupis
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: This paper investigates the role of neutral winds in the generation of relatively large polarization electric fields across patchy sporadic-E layers, which then map upward to the F region, to create conditions for medium-scale spread-F. The calculations are based on an analytical model that uses the current continuity equation and field-aligned current closures to the F region in order to describe quantitatively a Hall polarization process inside sporadic-E plasma patches during nighttime. In applying this model we use experimentally known values for E and F region, conductances, the ambient electric fields and prevailing neutral winds, in order to estimate the polarization fields that build up inside sporadic-E. It is found that the relatively strong west-southwest neutral winds during summer nighttime can provide the free energy for the generation of sizable polarization electric fields, which have comparable eastward and north-upward components and reach values of several mV/m. Given that the sporadic-E patches have sizes from a few to several tens of kilometers, the polarization fields can map easily to the F region bottomside where they impact ExB plasma uplifts and westward bulk motions, in line with key observational properties of medium-scale spread-F. However, the present simple model needs further development to also include wind forcing of the F region plasma and possible polarization processes inside spread-F. Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Ionospheric irregularities; Mid-latitude ionosphere)
A model of mid-latitude E-region plasma convergence inside a planetary wave cyclonic vortex
S. Shalimov,C. Haldoupis
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Recently, Shalimov et al. (1999) proposed a new mechanism for large-scale accumulation of long-lived metallic ions in the mid-latitude ionosphere driven by planetary waves in the lower thermosphere. In this mechanism, the combined action of frictional and horizontal magnetic field forces at E-region altitudes causes the plasma to converge and accumulate in large areas of positive neutral wind vorticity within a propagating planetary wave. The present paper provides a theoretical formulation for this mechanism by modelling both horizontal and vertical plasma transport effects within a planetary wave vortex, of cyclonic neutral wind. Non-steady-state numerical solutions of the ion continuity equation show that the proposed accumulation process can enhance the ionization significantly inside the planetary wave vortex but its efficiency depends strongly on altitude, whereas on the other hand, it can be complicated by vertical plasma motions. The latter, which are driven by the same planetary wave wind field under the action of the vertical Lorentz force and meridional wind forcing along the magnetic field lines, can lead to either plasma compressions or depletions, depending on the prevailing wind direction. We conclude that, for shorter times, vertical plasma transport may act constructively to the horizontal gathering process to produce considerable E-region plasma accumulation over large sectors of a planetary wave vortex of cyclonic winds. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere; sporadic E-layers) – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides)
Auroral E-region electron density gradients measured
C. Haldoupis,K. Schlegel,G. Hussey
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: In the theory of E-region plasma instabilities, the ambient electric field and electron density gradient are both included in the same dispersion relation as the key parameters that provide the energy for the generation and growth of electrostatic plasma waves. While there exist numerous measurements of ionospheric electric fields, there are very few measurements and limited knowledge about the ambient electron density gradients, Ne, in the E-region plasma. In this work, we took advantage of the EISCAT CP1 data base and studied statistically the vertical electron density gradient length, Lz=Ne/(dNe/dz), at auroral E-region heights during both eastward and westward electrojet conditions and different ambient electric field levels. Overall, the prevailing electron density gradients, with Lz ranging from 4 to 7 km, are found to be located below 100 km, but to move steadily up in altitude as the electric field level increases. The steepest density gradients, with Lz possibly less than 3 km, occur near 110 km mostly in the eastward electrojet during times of strong electric fields. The results and their implications are examined and discussed in the frame of the linear gradient drift instability theory. Finally, it would be interesting to test the implications of the present results with a vertical radar interferometer. Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities)
Type-1 echoes from the mid-latitude E-Region ionosphere
C. Haldoupis,D. T. Farley,K. Schlegel
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: This paper presents more data on the properties of type-1 irregularities in the nighttime mid-latitude E-region ionosphere. The measurements were made with a 50-MHz Doppler radar system operating in Crete, Greece. The type-1 echoes last from several seconds to a few minutes and are characterized by narrow Doppler spectra with peaks corresponding to wave phase velocities of 250–350 m/s. The average velocity of 285 m/s is about 20% lower than nominal E-region ion-acoustic speeds, probably because of the presence of heavy metallic ions in the sporadic-E-layers that appear to be associated with the mid-latitude plasma instabilities. Sometimes the type-1 echoes are combined with a broad spectrum of type-2 echoes; at other times they dominate the spectrum or may appear in the absence of any type-2 spectral component. We believe these echoes are due to the modified two-stream plasma instability driven by a polarization electric field that must be larger than 10 mV/m. This field is similar in nature to the equatorial electrojet polarization field and can arise when patchy nighttime sporadic-E-layers have the right geometry.
Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo
N. Christakis, C. Haldoupis, Q. Zhou,C. Meek
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Sporadic E layers (Es) follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50°) over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1) tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1) a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2) a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.
Auroral E-region electron density height profile modificationby electric field driven vertical plasma transport:some evidence in EISCAT CP-1 data statistics
T. B singer, G. C. Hussey, C. Haldoupis,K. Schlegel
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: A model developed several years ago by Huuskonen et al. (1984) predicted that vertical transport of ions in the nocturnal auroral E-region ionosphere can shift the electron density profiles in altitude during times of sufficiently large electric fields. If the vertical plasma transport effect was to operate over a sufficiently long enough time, then the real height of the E-region electron maximum should be shifted some km upwards (downwards) in the eastward (westward) auroral electrojet, respectively, when the electric field is strong, exceeding, say, 50 mV/m. Motivated by these predictions and the lack of any experimental verification so far, we made use of the large database of the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar to investigate if the anticipated vertical plasma transport is at work in the auroral E-region ionosphere and thus to test the Huuskonen et al. (1984) model. For this purpose a new type of EISCAT data display was developed which enabled us to order a large number of electron density height profiles, collected over 16 years of EISCAT operation, according to the electric field magnitude and direction as measured at the same time at the radar's magnetic field line in the F-region. Our analysis shows some signatures in tune with a vertical plasma transport in the auroral E-region of the type predicted by the Huuskonen et al. model. The evidence brought forward is, however, not unambiguous and requires more rigorous analysis. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection; electric fields and currents)
E-region mid-latitude decametre irregularities observed at four radar frequencies. Experiment and first results
G. C. Hussey,J. Delloue,C. Haldoupis,A. Bourdillon
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper an experiment designed for multifrequency azimuthal Doppler-spectrum investigations of decametre-scale plasma irregularities in the mid-latitude E region is introduced and some preliminary results are presented. The observations were made with the high-frequency Valensole radar in the south of France. The radar operated in a multifrequency mode that allowed simultaneous measurements of Doppler spectra at the four frequencies of 9.23, 11.03, 12.71 and 16.09 MHz, which correspond to scatter from field-aligned irregularities with wavelengths of 16.2, 13.6, 11.8 and 9.3 m, respectively. In addition, a digital ionosonde was operating beneath a small part of the radar viewing region. The data show that lower-frequency echoes are stronger, more frequent and more spatially extended than higher-frequency ones, in general agreement with theory and rocket measurements. On the other hand, the preliminary analysis shows no pronounced differences of the Doppler spectrum with radar frequency. Some trends in the spectral moments do exist, however, which can be understood as the result of temporal and/or spatial mixing of backscatter from directly generated (primary) plasma waves by the gradient drift instability and secondary low-velocity waves. Finally, a close relation of mid-latitude coherent backscatter with patchy sporadic E-layers is present in the data, but the details of this relation remain unresolved.
50 MHz continuous wave interferometer observations of the unstable mid-latitude E-region ionosphere
C. Haldoupis,A. Bourdillon,A. Kamburelis,G. C. Hussey
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper we describe the conversion of SESCAT (Sporadic-E SCATter experiment), a bistatic 50 MHz continuous wave (CW) Doppler radar located on the island of Crete, Greece, to a single (east-west) baseline interferometer. The first results show that SESCAT, which provides high quality Doppler spectra and excellent temporal resolution, has its measurement capabilities enhanced significantly when operated as an interferometer, as it can also study short-term dynamics of localized scattering regions within mid-latitude sporadic E-layers. The interferometric observations reveal that the aspect sensitive area viewed by the radar often contains a few zonally located backscatter regions, presumably blobs or patches of unstable metallic ion plasma, which drift across the radar field-of-view with the neutral wind. On average, these active regions of backscatter have mean zonal scales ranging from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers and drift with westward speeds from ~ 20 m/s to 100 m/s, and occasionally up to 150 m/s. The cross-spectral analysis shows that mid-latitude type 1 echoes occur much more frequently than has been previously assumed and they originate in single and rather localized areas of elevated electric fields. On the other hand, typical bursts of type 2 echoes are often found to result from two adjacent regions in azimuth undergoing the same bulk motion westwards but producing scatter of opposite Doppler polarity, a fact that contradicts the notion of isotropic turbulence to which type 2 echoes are attributed. Finally, quasi-periodic (QP) echoes are observed simply to be due to sequential unstable plasma patches or blobs which traverse across the radar field-of-view, sometimes in a wave-like fashion. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; mid-latitude ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities)
Special Topic Plasma Instabilities in the Ionospheric E-region
K. Schlegel,D. T. Farley,A. V. Gurevich,C. Haldoupis
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
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