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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219491 matches for " C. Gopinath "
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Detection of Influenza Viruses Attached to an Optical Disk  [PDF]
Takayuki Shima, Makoto Fujimaki, Akihiro Yoshida, Subash C. B. Gopinath, Masashi Kuwahara, Yoshimichi Ohki, Koichi Awazu
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42020
Abstract:

Detection of polystyrene beads with a diameter of 100 nm was conducted using an optical disk drive tester equipped with a laser of 405 nm wavelength and an objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.65. The polystyrene beads were used to mimic the influenza virus. A grooved disk with a (ZnS)85(SiO2)15/SiO2 layered surface structure was used for the detection. The detection of influenza viruses (A/Udorn/307/1972) with Au nanoparticles was also demonstrated using the optical disk drive tester. In this case, a grooved disk with an indium tin oxide (ITO) film was used. The ITO film functioned both to tune the reflectance of the disk and as an electrically conductive layer for scanning electron microscopy. In both cases, the target substances were successfully recognized in a single scan with a high scanning speed of 4.9 m/s. The results indicate that this optical disk system can be used to detect 100 nm scale substances like influenza viruses, which are smaller than the diffraction limit of the system.

Transitions to Nematic states in homogeneous suspensions of high aspect ratio magnetic rods
A. Gopinath,L. Mahadevan,R. C. Armstrong
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1063/1.2167811
Abstract: Isotropic-Nematic and Nematic-Nematic transitions from a homogeneous base state of a suspension of high aspect ratio, rod-like magnetic particles are studied for both Maier-Saupe and the Onsager excluded volume potentials. A combination of classical linear stability and asymptotic analyses provides insight into possible nematic states emanating from both the isotropic and nematic non-polarized equilibrium states. Local analytical results close to critical points in conjunction with global numerical results (Bhandar, 2002) yields a unified picture of the bifurcation diagram and provides a convenient base state to study effects of external orienting fields.
Waveguide-Mode Sensors as Aptasensors
Subash C. B. Gopinath,Koichi Awazu,Makoto Fujimaki
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120202136
Abstract: Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands that can be generated by in vitro selection through partition and amplification. Aptamers can be generated against a wide range of biomolecules through the formation of versatile stem-loop structures. Because aptamers are potential substitutes for antibodies and drugs, the development of an aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) is mandatory for diagnosis. We previously reported that waveguide-mode sensors are useful in the analysis of a wide range of biomolecular interactions, including aptamers. The advantages of the waveguide-mode sensor that we developed include physical and chemical stability and that higher sensitivity can be achieved with ease by perforating the waveguide layer or using colored materials such as dyes or metal nanoparticles as labels. Herein, we provide an overview of the strategies and applications for aptamer-based analyses using waveguide-mode sensors.
International Comparison of Global Perceptions
Antonin Ricard,Emmanuelle Reynaud,C Gopinath,Parthasarathy Ravilochanan
International Business Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v5n7p28
Abstract: The recent global economic crisis is affecting people’s positions on globalization. In this paper, we examine the views of young managers toward globalization especially in small and medium enterprises. Since globalization has differential impacts in both developed and developing countries, we compare the views of young managers in France and India. We draw upon the social representations theory and its impact on attitudes to identify the differences among young managers. We measure the social profiles of managers (international openness, social background, work environment and education) and link them to social representation. The results show different levels of attitudes according to the manager countries of origin. The results also validate the existence of a link between attitudes and representations which vary according to manager social profiles.
Evaluation of Anti-A/Udorn/307/1972 Antibody Specificity to Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Using an Evanescent-Field Coupled Waveguide-Mode Sensor
Subash C. B. Gopinath, Koichi Awazu, Makoto Fujimaki, Kazufumi Shimizu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081396
Abstract: Discrimination of closely related strains is a key issue, particularly for infectious diseases whose incidence fluctuates according to variations in the season and evolutionary changes. Among infectious diseases, influenza viral infections are a worldwide cause of pandemic disease and mortality. With the emergence of different influenza strains, it is vital to develop a method using antibodies that can differentiate between viral types and subtypes. Ideally, such a system would also be user friendly. In this study, a polyclonal antibody generated against A/Udorn/307/1972 (H3N2) was used as a probe to distinguish between influenza H3N2 viruses based on the interaction between the antibody and hemagglutinin, demonstrating its applicability for viral discrimination. Clear discrimination was demonstrated using an evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensor, which has appealing characteristics over other methods in the viewpoint of improving the sensitivity, measurement time, portability and usability. Further supporting evidence was obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, hemagglutination-inhibition assays, and infectivity neutralization assays. The results obtained indicate that the polyclonal antibody used here is a potential probe for distinguishing influenza viruses and, with the aid of a handheld sensor it could be used for influenza surveillance.
Tolvaptan in the Treatment of Acute Hyponatremia Associated with Acute Kidney Injury
Shilpa Gopinath,Kalyana C. Janga,Sheldon Greenberg,Shree K. Sharma
Case Reports in Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/801575
Abstract: Hyponatremia defined as a plasma sodium concentration of less than 135?mmol/L is a very common disorder, occurring in hospitalized patients. Hyponatremia often results from an increase in circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and/or increased renal sensitivity to AVP, combined with an increased intake of free water. Hyponatremia is subdivided into three groups, depending on clinical history and volume status: hypovolemic, euvolemic, and hypervolemic. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia is usually treated with hypertonic (3%) saline. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH) and hypervolemic hyponatremia caused by heart failure or cirrhosis are treated with vasopressin antagonists (vaptans) since they increase plasma sodium (Na2+) concentration via their aquaretic effects (augmentation of free-water clearance). The role of tolvaptan in the treatment of acute hyponatremia and conversion of oliguric to nonoliguric phase of acute tubular necrosis has not been previously described. 1. Introduction Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication in critically ill patients and is difficult to manage as it is often accompanied by oliguria or anuria as well as total body fluid overload and edema. Optimal management of volume status as well as normalizing serum sodium levels is essential. Sodium concentration is the major determinant of plasma osmolality; therefore, hyponatremia usually indicates a low plasma osmolality. Low plasma osmolality rather than hyponatremia, per se, is the primary cause of the symptoms of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia not accompanied by hypoosmolality does not cause signs or symptoms and does not require specific treatment [1]. The limitation in the kidney’s ability to excrete water in hyponatremic states is, in most cases, due to the persistent action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin). ADH acts at the distal nephron to decrease the renal excretion of water. The action of ADH is, therefore, to concentrate the urine and, as a result, dilute the serum. Under normal circumstances, ADH release is stimulated primarily by hyperosmolality. However, under conditions of severe intravascular volume depletion or hypotension, ADH may be released even in the presence of serum hypoosmolality [1]. Hyponatremia and impaired urinary dilution can be caused by either a primary or a secondary defect in the regulation of AVP secretion or action. The primary forms are generally referred to as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH). When osmotic suppression of antidiuresis is impaired for any reason, retention
Relativistic electrons on a rotating spherical magnetic dipole: surface orbitals
James M. Gelb,Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271899000195
Abstract: The semiclassical orbitals of a relativistic electron on a rotating sphere threaded by an intense magnetic dipole field are examined. Several physically distinct regimes emerge, depending on the relative sizes of the mass, total energy, canonical azimuthal angular momentum, and magnetic field strength. Magnetic flux enclosed by orbits is quantized very close to the poles, suggesting a quantum Hall-like state. Application of this system to neutron star surfaces is outlined. The semiclassical orbitals of a relativistic electron on a rotating sphere threaded by an intense magnetic dipole field are examined. Several physically distinct regimes emerge, depending on the relative sizes of the mass, total energy, canonical azimuthal angular momentum, and magnetic field strength. Magnetic flux enclosed by orbits is quantized very close to the poles, suggesting a quantum Hall-like state. Application of this system to neutron star surfaces is outlined.
Relativistic charged particle in the dipole-sphere configuration. II. General tilted surface orbits
Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy,James M. Gelb
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The original version of this paper has been withdrawn by the authors and merged with the revised version of astro-ph/9702014.
Relativistic electrons in a rotating spherical magnetic dipole: localized three-dimensional states
James M. Gelb,Kaundinya S. Gopinath,Dallas C. Kennedy
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271899000201
Abstract: Paralleling a previous paper, we examine single- and many-body states of relativistic electrons in an intense, rotating magnetic dipole field. Single-body orbitals are derived semiclassically and then applied to the many-body case via the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The many-body case is reminiscent of the quantum Hall state. Electrons in a realistic neutron star crust are considered with both fixed density profiles and constant Fermi energy. In the first case, applicable to young neutron star crusts, the varying magnetic field and relativistic Coriolis correction lead to a varying Fermi energy and macroscopic currents. In the second, relevant to older crusts, the electron density is redistributed by the magnetic field.
Textbook of Dermatology
Gopinath T
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2003,
Abstract:
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