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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219950 matches for " C. Carbone "
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The educational and awareness purposes of the Paideia approach for heritage management
F. Carbone,L. Oosterbeek,C. Costa
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-1983-2012
Abstract: The need to raise awareness among the communities about the challenge of resource use – and, more generally, about the principles of sustainability – is the reason why the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed, in December 2002, the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, 2005–2014 (DESD). For operators and managers of cultural and natural heritage, it represents a profound challenge to their ability to transmit the content of scientific knowledge to the general public in order to empower everyone on the preservation of cultural and natural resources, and to raise awareness about the potential that mankind has at its disposal. In this context, the application of the PAIDEIA APPROACH for the management of cultural heritage is the key to the recovery of socio-economic values intrinsic to these resources. This approach to management is based on the enhancement of cultural (namely archaeological) and natural heritage for social benefit and it involves the tourist trade as a vehicle of knowledge transmission, intercultural dialogue and socio-economic sustainable development.
Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean
M. Rinaldi,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,C. Carbone
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom. The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production. Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.
Chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 at the high-altitude Himalayan station Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) (5079 m a.s.l.)
S. Decesari,M. C. Facchini,C. Carbone,L. Giulianelli
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We report chemical composition data for PM10 and PM1 from the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P), the world's highest aerosol observatory, located at 5079 m a.s.l. at the foothills of Mt. Everest. Despite its high altitude, the average PM10 mass apportioned by the chemical analyses is of the order of 6 μg m 3 (i.e., 10 μg/scm), with almost a half of this mass accounted for by organic matter, elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions, the rest being mineral dust. Organic matter, in particular, accounted for by 2.0 μg m 3 (i.e., 3.6 μg/scm) on a yearly basis, and it is by far the major PM10 component beside mineral oxides. Non-negligible concentrations of EC were also observed (0.36 μg/scm), confirming that optically-active aerosol produced from combustion sources can be efficiently transported up the altitudes of Himalayan glaciers. The concentrations of carbonaceous and ionic aerosols follow a common time trend with a maximum in the premonsoon season, a minimum during the monsoon and a slow "ramp-up" period in the postmonsoon and dry seasons, which is the same phenomenology observed for other Nepalese Himalayan sites in previous studies. Such seasonal cycle can be explained by the seasonal variations of dry and moist convection and of wet scavenging processes characterizing the climate of north Indian subcontinent. We document the effect of orographic transport of carbonaceous and sulphate particles upslope the Himalayas, showing that the valley breeze circulation, which is almost permanently active during the out-of-monsoon season, greatly impacts the chemical composition of PM10 and PM1 in the high Himalayas and provides an efficient mechanism for bringing anthropogenic optically-active aerosols into the Asian upper troposphere (>5000 m a.s.l.). The concentrations of mineral dust are impacted to a smaller extent by valley breezes and follow a unique seasonal cycle which suggest multiple source areas in central and south-west Asia. Our findings, based on two years of observations of the aerosol chemical composition, provide clear evidence that the southern side of the high Himalayas are impacted by transport of anthropogenic aerosols which constitute the Asian brown cloud.
On the representativeness of coastal aerosol studies to open ocean studies: Mace Head – a case study
M. Rinaldi,M. C. Facchini,S. Decesari,C. Carbone
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: A unique opportunity arose during the MAP project to compare open ocean aerosol measurements with those undertaken at the Mace Head Global Atmosphere Watch Station, a station used for decades for aerosol process research and long-term monitoring. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate that the key aerosol features and processes observed at Mace Head are characteristic of the open ocean, while acknowledging and allowing for spatial and temporal gradients. Measurements were conducted for a 5-week period at Mace Head and offshore, on the Research Vessel Celtic Explorer, in generally similar marine air masses, albeit not in connected-flow scenarios. The results of the study indicate, in terms of aerosol number size distribution, higher nucleation mode particle concentrations at Mace Head than offshore, pointing to a strong coastal source of new particles that is not representative of the open ocean. The Aitken mode exhibited a large degree of similarity, with no systematic differences between Mace Head and the open ocean, while the accumulation mode showed averagely 35% higher concentrations at Mace Head. The higher accumulation mode concentration can be attributed equally to cloud processing and to a coastal enhancement in concentration. Chemical analysis showed similar or even higher offshore concentrations for dominant species, such as nss-SO4-2, WSOC, WIOC and MSA. Sea salt concentration differences determined a 40% higher supermicron mass at Mace Head, although this difference can be attributed to a higher wind speed at Mace Head during the comparison period. Moreover, the relative chemical composition as a function of size illustrated remarkable similarity. While differences to varying degrees were observed between offshore and coastal measurements, no convincing evidence was found of local coastal effects, apart from nucleation mode aerosol, thus confirming the integrity of previously reported marine aerosol characterisation studies at Mace Head.
Agricultural drought in the Claromecó river basin, Buenos Aires province, Argentina
María E. Carbone,Beatriz Scian,María C. Piccolo
Revista de Climatología , 2008,
Abstract: The dry and wet periods affecting the Claromecó Creek Basin in the south of the Province of Buenos Aires were analysed applying Palmer's Model. Palmer's Drought Severity Index was calculated regionally for five towns for the 1904-1999 period. Both the rate corresponding to the drying of soil humidity and the regional climatic rates were taken into account. On analysing the conditions featured in each decade and during the period as a whole, it was found that whereas droughts prevailed 42.7% of the time, wet conditions predominated 35.5%, and during the remaining 21.8% of the time conditions were normal. Drought periods lasted longer than wet ones - an average of 16 to 19 months as opposed to a maximum of 11 months. The harshest droughts affecting regional farming were registered in 1962/63 (with an 80% loss of the wheat crop, the worst harvest ever), 1995/96 and 1998/99.
Desarrollo de un antígeno para diagnóstico del parvovirus de las ratas (virus Kilham) por la técnica de inhibición de la hemaglutinación Development of an antigen for the diagnosis of Kilham rat parvovirus by hemagglutination inhibition test
M.A. Ayala,J. Laborde,S. Milocco,C. Carbone
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: Se desarrolló un antígeno (Ag) para el diagnóstico de la infección por parvovirus Kilham de las ratas (KRV) por la técnica de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA). Para su elaboración se utilizaron cultivos primarios de fetos de ratas, infectados con KRV, los que fueron cosechados a diferentes tiempos posinfección, centrifugados y cada sedimento celular resuspendido en un volumen 100 veces menor al original. Cada muestra fue posteriomente sonicada, centrifugada y el sobrenadante (Ag) fue titulado por hemaglutinación (HA). El Ag elaborado a partir de células al 5to día posinfección ofreció el mejor título hemaglutinante. La especificidad del mismo fue confirmada por IHA con sueros específicos de referencia positivo y negativo a KRV y positivos a otros agentes infecciosos virales y bacterianos. Se analizaron 98 sueros por IHA y los resultados coincidieron con los obtenidos por un laboratorio de referencia. El Ag producido resultó específico, sensible, de fácil elaboración y de gran utilidad para el control de las colonias de ratas de producción y experimentación del país. An antigen of rat parvovirus (Kilham virus) was developed for the diagnosis of viral infection in rat colonies by using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. Primary cell cultures from rat embryos were infected with Kilham rat virus. Infected cells obtained at different time post infection were scraped, centrifuged, concentrated one hundred times, sonicated and centrifuged again. The supernatants obtained were titrated by hemagglutination. The specificity was confirmed with positive and negative reference sera. Ninety eight serum samples were studied by using HAI test. The results coincided with those obtained in a reference laboratory. Kilham rat parvovirus antigen obtained from 5 days-infected-cells was specific, sensitive, easy to prepare, with a high yield and it is useful to detect this virus in experimental and production rat colonies.
Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development
Pignatello R,Musumeci T,Basile L,Carbone C
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy.
Generation of high-purity higher-order Laguerre-Gauss beams at high laser power
L. Carbone,C. Bogan,P. Fulda,A. Freise,B. Willke
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.251101
Abstract: We have investigated the generation of highly pure higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beams at high laser power of order 100W, the same regime that will be used by 2nd generation gravitational wave interferometers such as Advanced LIGO. We report on the generation of a helical type LG33 mode with a purity of order 97% at a power of 83W, the highest power ever reported in literature for a higher-order LG mode.
Relaxation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence
S. Servidio,C. Gurgiolo,V. Carbone,M. L. Goldstein
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/789/2/L44
Abstract: Based on global conservation principles, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation theory predicts the existence of several equilibria, such as the Taylor state or global dynamic alignment. These states are generally viewed as very long-time and large-scale equilibria, which emerge only after the termination of the turbulent cascade. As suggested by hydrodynamics and by recent MHD numerical simulations, relaxation processes can occur during the turbulent cascade that will manifest themselves as local patches of equilibrium-like configurations. Using multi-spacecraft analysis techniques in conjunction with Cluster data, we compute the current density and flow vorticity and for the first time demonstrate that these localized relaxation events are observed in the solar wind. Such events have important consequences for the statistics of plasma turbulence.
Some results on maximal elements
Antonio Carbone
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171200002222
Abstract: We prove some results on maximal elements using the KKM-mapprinciple.
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