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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219740 matches for " C. Buck "
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Editorial
Frau C. Buck
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 1978, DOI: 10.1155/apec.5.1
Abstract:
Editorial
Frau C. Buck
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 1977, DOI: 10.1155/apec.4.115
Abstract:
Improving Concrete Containment Structures Associated with Fixed-Cone Valves  [PDF]
B. Skyler Buck, Michael C. Johnson, Zachary B. Sharp
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.35051
Abstract: Fixed-Cone valves are often used to dissipate energy and regulate flow at the low level outlet works of dams. Fixed-Cone valves, also known as Howell-Bunger valves, create an expanding conical jet allowing the energy of the water to dissipate over a large area. However, in many applications constructing the large stilling basin necessary for these valves is either not possible or not feasible. In order to reduce the relative size of the stilling basin, hoods or concrete containment structures have been used in conjunction with Fixed-Cone valves. This paper discusses the use of baffles in concrete containment structures in order to dissipate energy in a considerably confined space. It was determined that using baffles, in place of a deflector ring and end sill (Used in traditional containment structures.), significantly improves the function of containment structures by reducing downstream flow velocities and improving flow patterns and stability. This information will be useful to engineers allowing them to minimize scour and erosion associated with concrete containment structures.
Probabilistic Foundations of Statistical Mechanics: A Bayesian Approach
B. Buck,A. C. Merchant
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We examine the fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, dividing the problem into a discussion purely about probability, which we analyse from a Bayesian standpoint. We argue that the existence of a unique maximising probability distribution $\{p(j\vert K)\}$ for states labelled by $j$ given data $K$ implies that the corresponding maximal value of the information entropy $\sigma(\{(p_j\vert K)\}) = -\sum_j (p_j \vert K)\ln{(p_j\vert K)}$ depends explicitly on the data at equilibrium and on the Hamiltonian of the system. As such, it is a direct measure of our uncertainty about the exact state of the body and can be identified with the traditional thermodynamic entropy. We consider the well known microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical methods and ensure that the fluctuations about mean values are generally minuscule for macroscopic systems before identifying these mean values with experimental observables and thereby connecting to many standard results from thermodynamics. Unexpectedly, we find that it is not generally possible for a quantum process to be both isentropic and reversibly adiabatic. This is in sharp contrast to traditional thermodynamics where it is assumed that isentropic, reversible adiabatic processes can be summoned up on demand and easily realised. By contrast, we find that linear relations between pressures $P_j$ and energies $E_j$ are necessary and sufficient conditions for a quasi-static and adiabatic change to be isentropic, but, of course, this relationship only holds for a few especially simple systems, such as the perfect gas, and is not generally true for more complicated systems. By considering the associated entropy increases up to second order in small volume changes we argue that the consequences are in practice negligible.
Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators
C. Buck,B. Gramlich,S. Wagner
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/09/P09007
Abstract: For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.
The Potential of Photo-Talks to Reveal the Development of Scientific Discourses  [PDF]
Cassie Quigley, Gayle Buck
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.32033
Abstract: This study explores the potential of a photo-elicitation technique, photo-talks (Serriere, 2010), for understanding how young girls understand, employ and translate new scientific discourses. Over the course of a nine week period, 24 kindergarten girls in an urban girls’ academy were observed, videotaped, photographed and interviewed while they were immersed into scientific discourse. This paper explicitly describes how their emerging discursive patterns were made visible through this methodological tool. The findings are presented in vignettes in three themes uncovered during our analysis which are the following: Presented the recollection of the scientific Discourse, Described the understanding of scientific Discourse, and Created an opportunity for the translation into everyday discourse. Science educators can benefit from this methodological tool as a reflective tool with their participants, to validate and/or complicate data. Additionally, this methodological tool serves to make discourse patterns more visible by providing a visual backdrop to the conversations thus revealing the development as it is occurring in young children.
An Adjusted Model for Simple 1,2-Dyotropic Reactions. Ab Initio MO and VB Considerations  [PDF]
Henk M. Buck
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.33015
Abstract:

With an adjusted model, we reconsider simple 1,2-dyotropic reactions with the introduction of a concept based on the intramolecular dynamics of a tetrahedron (van ’t Hoff modeling). In fact the dyotropic reactions are strongly related to conversions originated from neighbouring group participation or anchimeric assistance, defined as the interaction of a center with a lone pair of electrons in an atom and the electrons present in aδor π bond. The researchful 1,2-dyotropic reactions, based on the 1,2-interchange of halogens, methyl and hydrogen taking place in a concerted fashion, are in competition with the two-step reaction in which the neighbouring group participation or anchimeric assistance comes to full expression by ionic dissociation of the other exchangeable (halogen) atom. As to be expected there is an essential difference between halogen or methyl exchange regarding the number of electrons participating in the transition state. This aspect becomes evident in the geometries of the corresponding transition state geometries. In this paper we refer to ab initio MO calculations and VB considerations. We consider the 1,2-halogen exchange as a combination of two SN2 reactions each containing four electrons. The van ’t Hoff dynamics appears a useful model in order to illustrate the computations in a straightforward manner.

A conformational B-Z DNA study monitored with phosphatemethylated DNA as a model for epigenetic dynamics focused on 5-(hydroxy)methylcytosine  [PDF]
Henk M. Buck
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2013.42005
Abstract:

This study was directed on the B- into Z-DNA isomerization with alternating CG sequences monitored with artificial DNA model-systems based on methylation of the phosphate backbone. The chemical concept for this transition wherein shielding of the oxygen anions of the backbone phosphates plays an essential role, resulted in the preparation of the phosphatemethylated d(CpG). Even on this primitive level of only two base pair long, the B-Z conformational aspects of this self-complementary duplex could be described in solution with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The exclusivity of this choice became clear after synthesizing phosphatemethylated DNA with longer alternating CG fragments. It could be shown that conflicting conformational effects of the CG and GC fragments resulted in an overall B structure of the phosphatemethylated tetramer d(CPGPCPG). From our model considerations, it is clear that the internal stress introduced by the alternating CG sequences will be promoted by a complete shielding of the phosphate backbone. Elimination of this effect may be realized by a site-specific phosphate shielding. The role of the anti-syn isomerization of G in the CG fragments is clarified by methylation of the phosphate group. This anti-syn transition is absent in corresponding methylphosphonates, suggesting an exclusive role for base-backbone coordination via hydrogen bonding. In addition, we propose that the B- into Z-DNA interconversion may offer a mechanistic view for differences in dynamics between cytosine and its epigenetic derivative 5-methylcytosine. This mechanism has been extended to the demethylation of 5-methylcytosine and the exchange of information between the new epigenetic base, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and the DNA backbone via an intramolecular phosphorylation. The role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in Alzheimer disease has been briefly discussed. In our opinion, this study can be considered as a new dynamic concept for epigenetics based on the dynamics of the B-Z transition in natural and phosphatemethylated DNA.

Three-Center Configuration with Four,Three, and Two Electrons for Carbon,Boron, Hydrogen, and Halogen Exchange. A Model and Theoretical Study with Experimental Evidence  [PDF]
Henk M. Buck
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.42006
Abstract:

The introduction of specific sites in organic frames for accommodation of various modes of bonding has been focused on reaction types which are described by using different theoretical models with or without a definite experimental proof. In this study three-center four-, three-, and two-electron systems based on carbon-, boron-, hydrogen-, and halogen exchange are under consideration. Based on the number of electrons in the transition state or transition complex it is shown that all transfer or exchange reactions share the same ratio numbers expressed as the quotient of the transitional bond distance under investigation and its normal bond length. With X-ray data of model systems it was even possible to give the ratio numbers for a three-center four-electron configuration experimental support with additional ab initio data. Furthermore a novel model type of substitution in organic chemistry is introduced through electrophilic insertion, informative for enzyme-substrate interactions based on the lock-and-key model. Reactions based on a three-center two-electron configuration mostly follow a nonlinear transition. In this alignment there will be a pursuit of cyclization for stabilization via homoaromaticity as homocyclopropenyl cation. The molecular dynamics of such a process is discussed based on recent X-ray crystallographic data of the symmetrically bridged, nonclassical geometry of the 2-norbornyl cation. In the present paper the focus is aimed at the transition intermediate of the (classical) 2-norbornyl cation involved in the isomerization into the nonclassical geometry. This model description is compared with a simple molecular rearrangement of the 1-propyl cation into the corner-protonated cyclopropane using the ab initio data. The exclusivity of the former isomerization compared with the latter one could be unambiguously demonstrated by the invention that theintramolecularelectron shift can be expressed in a linear relationship between the concerned electron-donating and accepting bond lengths. Finally, the fluor transitions as divalent atoms in a three-center two-electron configuration are described. The role of fluor in comparison with the other halogens is striking. The attention was focused on an excellent correspondence between the recent chemical and theoretical evidence for a symmetrical fluoronium ionin solution. Simple dialkylfluoroniumions in contrast to the other halonium ions are not present in solution. Although the geometry of the fluoronium ion theoretically can be described as a real minimum,

Interconversion between Planar-Triangle, Trigonal-Pyramid and Tetrahedral Configurations of Boron (B(OH)3 -B(OH)4- ), Carbon (CH3+ -CH3X) and for the Group 15 Elements as Nitrogen (NH3-NH4+ ). A Modelling Description with Ab Initio Results and Pressure-Induced Experimental Evidence  [PDF]
Henk M. Buck
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2015.51001
Abstract: Recently a mechanistic understanding of the pressure-and/or temperature-induced coordination change of boron in a borosilicate glass has been demonstrated by Edwards et al. In situ high-pressure 11B solid-state NMR spectroscopy has been used in combination with ab initio calculations in order to obtain insight in the molecular geometry for the pressure-induced conversion. The results indicate a deformation of the B(OH)3 planar triangle, under isotropic stress, into a trigonal pyramid that serves as a precursor for the formation of a tetrahedral boron configuration. From our point of view, the deformation controlling the out-of-plane transition of boron accompanied with a D3h into C3v geometric change is an interesting transformation because it matches with our molecular description based on Van’t Hoff modelling for the tetrahedral change of carbon in CH3X by substitution of X with nucleophiles via a trigonal bipyramid state in which the transferred carbon is present as a methyl planar triangle “cation”. Van’t Hoff modelling and ab initio calculations have been also applied on the dynamics of the out-of-plane geometry of a transient positively charged carbon in a trigonal pyramidal configuration into a planar trivalent carbon cation. Finally the same model is also used for the C3v trigonal pyramidal configurations as NH3 of the group 15 elements in their nucleophilic abilities.
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